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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 81-89

Prevalence and pattern of dry eye symptoms among “okada” riders in Southwest Nigeria using the ocular surface disease index: A cross sectional study

1 Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos; Guinness Eye Centre, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria
2 Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos; MeCure Eye Center, Me Cure Healthcare Limited, Lagos, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Adetunji Olusesan Adenekan
Department of Ophthalmology, Guinness Eye Center, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcls.jcls_37_20

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Background: Dry eye is a common disorder of the tear film that results in epithelial damage and the disruption of normal homeostasis at the ocular surface. It is a common ocular condition that is often missed in clinical diagnosis. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and pattern of dry eye symptoms using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) among commercial motorcyclists and also identify factors that may be responsible for dry eye symptoms in this population. Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional, population-based study. Using a multistage random sampling technique, 422 commercial motorcyclists were surveyed from 10 units of registered commercial motorcyclists. Interviewer-administered OSDI questionnaires (face to face) were used, and visual acuity (VA) measurement was done. Results: The prevalence of dry eye symptoms in this study was 83.42%. Using the OSDI, the pattern of dry eye symptoms in this study showed that 21.56% had mild dry eye, 54% had moderate dry eye, and 7.82% had severe dry eye. Riders aged >50 years (86.90%), P < 0.05, 95% confidence interval: 0.012–0.021; nonuse of protective spectacles (87.46%), P < 0.05, 95% confidence interval: −0.235–−0.087; and use of helmets with face shields while riding (92.89%), P < 0.05, 95% confidence interval: −0.160–−0.062, were risk factors for dry eye symptoms. All respondents who had diabetes mellitus (P < 0.05, 95% confidence interval: 0.084–0.429) and a larger proportion (84.86%) of those not on topical medications (P < 0.05, 95% confidence interval: −0.365–−0.066) had dry eye. Visual impairment (VA <6/18) was observed in three respondents, with uncorrected refractive errors as the cause. Multivariate analysis showed that respondents aged <50 years, nonuse of protective spectacles, use of crash helmets with face shield, medical conditions, particularly diabetes mellitus, and nonuse of topical medications were significantly associated with dry eye symptoms. Conclusion: The prevalence of dry eye symptoms was high, and majority had moderate dry eyes based on OSDI grading. Furthermore, public health awareness program should be commenced to educate motorcyclists on the importance of using protective goggles in preventing dry eye disease.

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