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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2018| April-June  | Volume 15 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 21, 2018

 
 
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH REPORTS
Metastatic oral and maxillofacial tumors in a tertiary referral hospital: Retrospective analysis of eight cases and review of the literature
Ramat Oyebunmi Braimah, Abdurrazaq Olanrewaju Taiwo, Adebayo Aremu Ibikunle, Olajide Soyele, Saddiku Malami Sahabi
April-June 2018, 15(2):107-111
DOI:10.4103/jcls.jcls_82_17  
Introduction: Metastatic tumors are lesions that originate from a distant site and manifest in their secondary site remote from the primary. They are said to be rare in the maxillofacial region. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective study from the Department of Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery and Department of Histopathology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, northwest Nigeria, from 2010 to 2016. Results: A total of 259 cases of malignant tumors were seen, of which 8 cases (3.1%) were metastasis. There were four males and four females (ratio 1:1). The age ranged from 20 to 75 years with mean ± standard deviation (55.6 ± 18.8 years). Mandible was the chosen location for all the metastatic tumors in this series with the right body-ramus region frequently involved in 4 (50%), closely followed by the left body-ramus in 3 (37.5%) and 1 (12.5%) case seen in the parasymphyseal-symphyseal region. The prostate was the most frequent primary organ that metastasized to the maxillofacial region (3, 37.5%). Conclusion: High level of suspicion is required for early identification of these lesions, and prompt referral is paramount as these tumors can be the first evidence of hidden malignancy at distant sites such as prostate, colon, lungs, breast, and kidneys.
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ABSTRACTS
Abstracts and poster presentations of the faculty of clinical sciences conference and gathering, 2017

April-June 2018, 15(2):69-95
DOI:10.4103/2468-6859.232815  
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH REPORTS
Central venous catheter insertion in critical illness: Techniques and complications
Oyebola Olubodun Adekola, Nicholas Kaode Irurhe, Victor Ayanwale Raji, Ibironke Desalu
April-June 2018, 15(2):96-101
DOI:10.4103/jcls.jcls_49_17  
Background: Werner Forssman, in 1929, first described central venous catheter (CVC) insertion when he canalized his own right atrium through the cephalic vein. It is now a routine procedure in critical care. We investigated the pattern of insertion of CVC in our intensive care unit. Patients and Methods: A prospective observational study conducted in a 5-bed general intensive care unit of a 770-bed university teaching hospital. All prospective patients admitted from January 2013 to June 2014 were recruited. The technique, site and complications following insertion were documented. All had postprocedure chest radiography performed to confirm catheter tip position. Results: The most common site and technique of CVC insertion were the right internal jugular vein (IJV) 71 (79.8%), and the anatomic landmark (AL) 66 (74.2%), respectively. The mean catheter depth was significantly shorter in the AL (15.0 ± 2.4) cm than the Peres' formula (16.5 ± 3) cm, P = 0.046. Catheter tips were correctly placed at the carina in 62 (69.7%) patients. The complication rate was 28 (31.5%), which was significantly higher in males 25 (45.5%) than females 3 (8.9%), P = 0.03, and increased by 57.9% with attempts >2. The most common complications were failure to insert 9 (10.1%), right carotid artery puncture (8.9%), and arrhythmias (5.9%). Pneumothorax was reported in (4.5%), all occurred with the subclavian approach. Conclusion: Central venous catheter insertion is more common through the right internal jugular vein, and with the anatomical landmark technique. The complication increased with attempts >2, male gender, and subclavian approach.
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Kinesio taping is an effective stop-gap measure in alleviating the symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee
Ayoola Ibifubara Aiyegbusi, Olufemi Mohammed Ogunfowodu, Sunday Rufus Akinbo
April-June 2018, 15(2):102-106
DOI:10.4103/jcls.jcls_43_17  
Background: Osteoarthritis comes with periods of exacerbation of symptoms and therefore necessitates an effective stop-gap measure that will alleviate symptoms. Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the comparative effects of sham taping and Kinesio Taping (KT) on pain and functional parameters in participants with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Setting and Design: This study design was a clinical control study. Materials and Methods: Thirty participants with KOA were assigned into two groups (Sham taping and KT) using consecutive sampling technique. Sham and KT were applied on the participants in the appropriate groups following baseline evaluation. Numerical Pain Intensity Scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, Berg Balance Scale, and wet footprint were used to evaluate the pain, disability, balance, and gait parameters, respectively, both at baseline and immediately posttaping. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation whereas posttaping differences between the groups were compared using Mann–Whitney U- and independent t-test. The level of significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Both the Sham and KT groups had significant (P < 0.05) improvements in the outcome parameters, but analysis of the mean differences pre- and post-taping in the outcome variables showed KT as having better significant (P <.005) clinical effects in all the outcome parameters. Conclusion: KT alleviates pain, disability, and improves balance on immediate application to the knee of participants with osteoarthritis (OA). It is, therefore, recommended that physiotherapists prescribe KT to patients with knee OA as an immediate therapeutic modality to alleviate the symptoms.
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