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   2012| July-December  | Volume 9 | Issue 2  
    Online since November 1, 2014

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Practice of exclusive breastfeeding among women in a semi-urban community in Lagos
FA Olatona, E Ekanem, KA Odeyemi
July-December 2012, 9(2):1-6
Introduction: Child mal-nutrition remains a public health problem in developing countries even though breast milk is the most complete form of nutrition for infants. The objectives of this study were to determine the breastfeeding practices, determine the prevalence and the median duration of exclusive breast feeding among mothers in Ikosi district of Ikosi Isheri Local Council Development Area, Lagos. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study which employed a multistage sampling method to select 400 mothers whose last confinement was not more than five years to prevent recall bias. Data was collected using structured interviewer-administered questionnaires and analyzed using Epi-Info version 6 computer software. Results: Majority (93.8%) of the mothers interviewed were between the ages of 20-39 years. Almost all of them (97%) were married and majority were Yoruba. All the respondents initiated breastfeeding, but only 27.5% of the respondents initiated it within the first one hour. The median duration of breastfeeding was 15.5 months, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was 35.3%, while the median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 3 months. Almost half (49.6%) of the respondents who did not practice exclusive breastfeeding failed to do so because they added water to the breast milk from birth. Marital status, mother's attitude to exclusive breastfeeding, husband's attitude to exclusive breastfeeding, and level of knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding all had statistically significant positive association with the practice of exclusive breastfeeding in this community (p <0.05). Conclusion and Recommendation: The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was low (35.3%) and the median duration of exclusive breastfeeding among those who attempted it was too short (3 months). Public enlightenment and proper health education on exclusive breastfeeding are still relevant, especially in the antenatal clinic so that mothers can have accurate knowledge about its benefits and learn practically how to practice it. Educated women should be targeted more than in the past and more awareness should be created among husbands.
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  1,493 852 -
Profile and risk factors of occupational related conditions in an oil industry in South-South, Nigeria
OJ Akinsola, KA Odeyemi, EE Ekanem
July-December 2012, 9(2):7-12
Background: The incidence and prevalence of industrial accidents and illnesses are approaching epidemic proportions all over the world particularly in the oil sector. Sequel to surge, relax and resurgence of Niger-Delta crises in Nigeria, the oil and gas workers have been exposed to numerous occupational hazards due to poor adherence to prevention programmes. Objective: There is little or no information to describe the frequency of morbidity and mortality and associated risk factors in oil and gas industry in Nigeria. This study was carried out to describe the profile of occupational health-related conditions in an oil industry. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort design covering a period of 14 years (1992 - 2005) in which oil workers who have had exposure to occupational health hazards or experienced accidents or illnesses for at least one-year post employment were studied. Information was collected on type of occupational hazards, accidents and illnesses experienced. Data management and statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 15.0. Descriptive and Inferential statistics (chi-square, binary logistic regression) was employed. Results: About two-third (63.7%) of the ill-health was due to exposure to biochemical hazard which was more prevalent in the Production section. The hazard and accident experienced by workers include: Noise, Toxic substance and Leakages while injuries experienced are Sprain, Strain and Respiratory disorders. The Section and Length of years have significant association on exposure to occupational accident and illness. Also, most of socio-demographic characteristics except sex have significant association with occurrence of occupational injuries and illnesses. Conclusion: The study revealed that most of the occupational accidents and illness the workers experienced are due to exposure of biochemical hazards (fumes, mists, vapour, gases and flammable liquids) and psychosocial hazards (youth restiveness, vandalization, robbery, shift-work). Confounding variables (sex, age group and length of service) were also controlled for in the study. Since a larger percentage of workers working in high-risk section are affected mostly by exposure to occupational hazards, a strong public health advocacy that will ensure that employers and employees religiously adhere to high safety standard at the workplace is recommended.
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  1,424 842 -
JD Adeyemi
July-December 2012, 9(2):0-0
Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  1,305 940 -
Albinism and the eye in a Sub-Saharan cosmopolitan city
FB Akinsola, OO Ibidapo, A Ajose, AT Sonuga, AO Onakoya, OT Aribaba, A Rotimi-Samuel, AO Adefule-Ositelu
July-December 2012, 9(2):18-21
Purpose: To evaluate the ocular features of albinism seen in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) and Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH),Lagos. Study Design: A retrospective study Methods: The case-notes of ocular or oculo-cutaneous albinism patients who presented between January 2004 and December 2008, at Guinness Eye Centre, LUTH, and Eye clinic(LASUTH), Ikeja were reviewed. Results: One hundred and eighteen cases, 74 (62.7%) males and 44 (37.3%) females were seen. There was a male preponderance, male: female ratio of 1.7:1. Ages ranged between 3 months to 56 years. There was positive family history of albinism in 74 (62.7%) and negative family history in 44 (37.3%) patients. Thirteen (11.0%) patients were diagnosed as ocular, while 105 (89.0%) had oculo-cutaneous albinism. Of the 13 with ocular albinism, 10 (76.9%) were males and 3 (23.1%) females (male: female ratio of 3.3:1), while of the 105 with oculo-cutaneous albinism, 59 (56.2%) were males and 46 (43.8%) females (male: female ratio of 1.3:1). Thirty-seven of those with oculo-cutaneous albinism clinically appeared to be tyrosinase positive, and 68 tyrosinase negative. Conclusion: Albinism affects the entire individual including the eye and most features found in this study compare favorably with findings of other authors.
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  1,476 84 -
Influence of motor performance and post-stroke duration on quality of life of stroke survivors
CA Gbiri, AO Akinpelu
July-December 2012, 9(2):13-17
Background And Aims: Motor performance (MP) is important in performance of activity of daily living. Quality of life (QoL) data on stroke survivors (SSv), but there is dearth of literature on the influence of MP and post-stroke duration (PD) on QoL of SSv in Nigeria. Hence, this study investigated the influence of MP and PD on QoL of SSv. Methods: This study involved 84 stroke survivors (53 males and 31 females) who have been discharged from hospital admission and attending out-patient physiotherapy in seven tertiary health institutions in Nigeria. Modified Motor Assessment Scale was used to assess MP while PD was obtained through interview. Quality of life was assessed using the Comprehensive QoL (adult) questionnaire (5 th edition). Data was analysed using Spearman's correlation coefficient and Kruskaal-Wallis test at p = 0.05. Results: Participants ages ranged between 20 and 93 years with a mean of 59.7±11.7 year. Their total objective and subjective QoL scores were 42.0±12.9 and 67.8±10.6 respectively. Their mean PD and MP were 17.8±15.4 months and 55.3±18.9% respectively. There was no significant relationship between MP and QoL. There was no significant relationship among PD, MP and QoL of SSv. Conclusion: Stroke has a negative impact on QoL of Nigeria SSv. Quality of life among Nigeria SSv is neither influenced by how much motor recovery they have achieved or how long they have suffered stroke. Hence, effort should be made to focus on quality of functional performance rather than motor activities during the rehabilitation of stroke patients in Nigeria.
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  1,481 77 -
Comparison of the effect of two passive stretching protocols on delayed onset of muscle soreness
BA Tella, AK Akodu, O Fasuba
July-December 2012, 9(2):22-25
Background: Delayed onset muscle soreness is a dull aching sensation that is experienced by individuals unaccustomed to exercise who begins a resistance-training programme, particularly one that includes eccentric exercise. Objectives: This study was designed to determine and compare the effect of passive stretching before and after exercise on delayed onset muscle soreness in the biceps brachii muscle. Methods: Eighty four (84) participants took part in the study and were assigned randomly into three groups of pre exercise stretching (A), post exercise stretching (B) and control (C). The participants in group A had 4 sets of passive stretching before performing eccentric resistant exercise of the biceps brachii, the participants in group B had 4 sets of passive stretching after performing eccentric resistant exercise of the biceps brachii and group C served as the control group, they had no stretching at all before and after performing eccentric resistant exercise. All participants had their pain intensity measured at 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours interval. Statistical analysis was done using inferential statistics of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Witney U tests. Results: The result of the study showed that groups A, B and C had mean pain intensities of (0.80 ± 0.2), (1.77 ± 0.4), (3.01 ± 0.4) for 24hours; (0.89 ± 0.3), (2.02 ± 0.3), (3.35 ± 0.4) for 48hours and (1.53 ± 0.2), (3.15 ± 0.5), (4.64 ± 0.4) for 72 hours respectively. There was a significant difference in pain intensity felt between participants in group A and group C (p < 0.01), group B and group C (p < 0.01) for 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours, while there was no significant difference between participants in group A and group B for 24 hours (p >0.2) and a significant difference for 48 hours and 72 hours (p < 0.01, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Passive stretching before and after exercise was capable of reducing the pain felt during delayed onset of muscle soreness but passive stretching before the exercises gives a better result in reducing pain intensity than passive stretching after.
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  1,457 92 -