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ORIGINAL RESEARCH REPORTS
Knowledge, attitude, and practices of emergency health workers toward emergency preparedness and management in two hospitals in Lagos
Babajide A Adenekan, Mobolanle R Balogun, Victor Inem
January-March 2016, 13(1):23-28
DOI:10.4103/1595-9587.175483  
Background and Objective: The Emergency Department is of significance and is the vital entry points of patients into the healthcare facility of the hospital all around the world. This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of emergency personnel at two tertiary hospitals in Lagos as regards emergency management and preparedness. Aims: This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of emergency personnel at two tertiary hospitals in Lagos with regard to emergency management and preparedness. Settings and Design: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A convenient recruitment was made of eligible and consenting individuals at both hospitals until the required sample size was reached. Statistical Analysis Used: The data obtained were analyzed using Epi Info statistical software version 3.5.1. Results: The majority (93.2%) of the participants were clinicians. It was discovered that less than half or 98 (47.8%) of the participants had good knowledge of emergency preparedness and planning, 76 (37.1%) had a fair knowledge, while 31 (15.1%) had poor knowledge. The respondents' attitude toward emergency preparedness was generally positive, as most of them, that is, 191 (93.2%) believed that they needed to know about emergency planning. Only a minority, that is, 72 (35.1%) of the respondents knew that emergency drills are done in their respective hospitals. Conclusions: There was an overall deficiency in the respondents' knowledge of emergency preparedness. Their attitude was good and acceptable, but their practices in terms of the frequency of emergency drills and the frequency of regularly updating the emergency plans were grossly inadequate.
  3,496 410 1
Knowledge, attitude, and practice of abortion among female students of two public senior secondary schools in Lagos Mainland Local Government Area, Lagos State
Abdul-Hakeem O Abiola, Oluwabunmi A Oke, Mobolanle R Balogun, Foluke A Olatona, Maymunah A Adegbesan-Omilabu
April-June 2016, 13(2):82-87
DOI:10.4103/2408-7408.179682  
Background: Unsafe abortion is a public health concern because of its dire reproductive health consequences and impact on maternal morbidity and mortality. Tackling this problem will go a long way toward achieving one of the Millennium Developmental Goals, which aim to reduce overall maternal mortality by two-thirds by the year 2015. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice of abortion and the factors associated with it among female students of two public senior secondary schools in Mainland Local Government Area, Lagos state. Materials and Methods: This was designed as a cross-sectional, descriptive study. The multistage sampling method was used to select 210 respondents. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires and analyzed using the EPI Info software. The questionnaire was divided into four sections: the sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents, knowledge about abortion, attitudes toward abortion, and the practice of abortion. The responses to the knowledge and attitude questions were scored and graded as good (≥50%) and poor (<50%). Results: The response rate was 98%. The mean age of the respondents was 15.6 ΁ 1.3 years. The majority (83.3%) of the respondents had good knowledge of abortion; almost all (99.2%) demonstrated poor attitude toward abortion; and only a few (2%) had ever had an abortion. There was a statistically significant association between the ages of the respondents and their knowledge of abortion (P = 0.004) as well as their attitude toward abortion (P = 0.03). Conclusion: The respondents showed good knowledge of abortion, poor attitude toward abortion, and a low of practice of abortion. There is, therefore, a need to improve and sustain the existing knowledge and attitudes toward abortion so as to reduce the practice of abortion among students of the two schools.
  3,427 349 1
CASE REPORTS
Multiple scrotal epidermal cysts: A rare case report
Kavita Mardi
January-June 2014, 11(1):20-21
DOI:10.4103/1595-9587.137246  
Multiple epidermal cysts over the scrotum is a rare condition and requires excision if infected or cosmetically unacceptable. Grossly enlarged or infected cysts require total excision of the scrotal wall followed by the coverage of bare testes. We are reporting a case of multiple epidermal cysts on the scrotum. Total excision of scrotal wall followed by the fascio cutaneous flap coverage was done in this case.
  3,507 171 -
ORIGINAL RESEARCH REPORTS
Knowledge and consumption of fruits and vegetables among secondary school students of Obele Community Junior High School, Surulere, Lagos State, Nigeria
Oluwakanyinsola Ojuolape Silva, Olayinka O Ayankogbe, Tinuola O Odugbemi
April-June 2017, 14(2):68-73
DOI:10.4103/jcls.jcls_60_16  
Background: The incidence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing in developing countries, largely due to lifestyle and dietary changes. Adolescents are a nutritionally vulnerable age group; however, poor eating habits are often observed in adolescents. It has been observed that individuals who develop healthy eating habits early on in life are more likely to maintain them into adulthood and have a reduced risk of developing NCDs. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and consumption pattern of fruits and vegetables among junior secondary school students. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 220 respondents selected using a multistage sampling technique. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data, which was analyzed using Epi Info Version 7 statistical software. Results obtained were presented with the use of frequency tables. Results: Results from this study revealed that 84.99% of the respondents displayed good knowledge of the nutritional and health values of fruits and vegetables; however, the consumption of fruits and vegetables was appropriate in only 5.48% of the respondents, having five portions of fruits and vegetables daily. Parental intake, encouragement, and supervision as well as availability and accessibility to fruits and vegetables at home were motivators for appropriate consumption. Conclusion: This study has revealed that the students of Obele Community Junior High School, Surulere, have good knowledge of the nutritional and health values of fruits and vegetables. However, the students have inappropriate daily consumption, as their consumption falls below the World Health Organization recommended five portions daily. Efforts should be made by the students themselves, the family, the School, all and sundry in the community to effect change soonest, so that these adolescents maintain healthy eating habits into adulthood, and hence prevent the occurrence of nutrition-related NCDs later on in life.
  3,211 389 1
CASE REPORTS
Submandibular vascular hamartoma with phleboliths mimicking sialolithiasis
Sharad Ramdas, Anita Ramdas, Moses M Ambroise, Renu G'Boy Varghese
July-December 2014, 11(2):52-54
DOI:10.4103/1595-9587.146504  
The differential diagnoses of radiopacities in the orofacial region include sialoliths, calcified lymph nodes, tuberculous nodes, and uncommon phleboliths. We report a case of a 37-year-old lady with intermittent unilateral left-sided submandibular swelling caused by a vascular hamartoma with phleboliths, which was initially diagnosed as submandibular sialolithiasis.
  3,286 131 -
Neurolipoma: A rare entity
Banyameen Iqbal, Tushar Kambale, Iqra Mushtaq
July-December 2014, 11(2):55-56
DOI:10.4103/1595-9587.146505  
A lipoma is a common type of benign tumor and a neurolipoma is one of its variants. It is also referred to as neural fibrolipoma, fibrolipomatous hamartoma, intramural lipoma, and lipomatosis of nerve. The most common sites of presentation are the volar aspects of the hands, wrists, and forearms of young persons. The median nerve is most commonly involved. Lower-extremity cases are extremely rare. We report here a rare case involving the median nerve without any skeletal deformity occurring in a male patient. It usually presents with swelling associated with pain and tenderness.
  3,007 146 -
Fournier's gangrene and perianal abscess: Is there a common denominator?
Ajibola Emmanuel Jeje, Bolaji O Mofikoya, Abisola E Oliyide
January-March 2017, 14(1):53-55
DOI:10.4103/2468-6859.199166  
Fourniers gangrene is a genital catastrophe with significant morbidity and mortality. We present a 57 year old patient with fournier's gangrene and perianal abscess. He had serial debridements with daily bedside dressing and secondary closure of the scrotal defect. Further evaluation during the course of treatment revealed diabetes mellitus. We conclude that aggressive multidisciplinary treatment will improve outcome and that the existence of fournier's gangrene coexisting perianal abscess could alert the clinician to the possibility of underlying diabetes mellitus - A common denominator.
  2,636 133 -
LETTER TO EDITOR
Emphasizing the role of stakeholders in the safe disposal of biomedical wastes
Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
January-June 2015, 12(1):57-58
DOI:10.4103/1595-9587.160773  
  2,468 137 -
ORIGINAL RESEARCH REPORTS
Critical incidents and near misses during anesthesia: A prospective audit
Pamela Onorame Agbamu, Ifeyinwa Dorothy Menkiti, Esohe Ivie Ohuoba, Ibironke Desalu
January-March 2017, 14(1):18-24
DOI:10.4103/2468-6859.199170  
Background: A critical incident is any preventable mishap associated with the administration of anesthesia and which leads to or could have led to an undesirable patients' outcome. Patients' safety can be improved by learning from reported critical incidents and near misses. Materials and Methods: All perioperative critical incidents (excluding obstetrics) occurring over 5 months were voluntarily documented in a pro forma. Age of patient, urgency of surgery, grade of anesthetist, and patients' outcome was noted. Results: Seventy-three critical incidents were recorded in 42 patients (incidence 6.1% of 1188 procedures) with complete recovery in 88.1% (n = 37) and mortality in 11.9% (n = 5). The highest incidents occurred during elective procedures (71.4%), which were all supervised by consultants, and in patients aged 0–10 years (40.1%). Critical incident categories documented were cardiovascular (41.1%), respiratory (23.25%), vascular access (15.1%), airway/intubation (6.85%), equipment errors (6.85%), difficult/failed regional technique (4.11%), and others (2.74%). The monitors available were: pulse oximetry (100%), precordial stethoscope (90.5%), sphygmomanometer (90.5%), capnography (54.8%), electrocardiogram (31%), and temperature (14.3%). The most probable cause of critical incident was patient factor (38.7%) followed by human error (22.5%). Equipment error, pharmacological factor, and surgical factor accounted for 12.9%. Conclusion: Critical incidents can occur in the hands of the highly skilled and even in the presence of adequate monitoring. Protocols should be put in place to avoid errors. Critical incident reporting must be encouraged to improve patients' safety and reduce morbidity and mortality.
  2,280 295 -
Anthropometry of children with cerebral palsy at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital
Titilayo Olubunmi Adekoje, Mike Nwachukwu Ibeabuchi, Foluso Ebun Afolabi Lesi
July-September 2016, 13(3):96-104
DOI:10.4103/2468-6859.185245  
Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) is one the most common causes of disability among children in developing countries and is often associated with poor growth. The assessment of growth and nutrition of children is an important aspect of health monitoring and is one of the determinants of child survival. Aim: To assess the nutritional status of children with CP as seen in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH). Subjects and Methods: A prospective case-control study was conducted on children with CP attending the weekly pediatric neurology clinic of the LUTH between April 2005 and March 2006. Controls were apparently healthy children being followed up at the children's out-patient clinic of LUTH for acute illness that had resolved. Anthropometric measurements of weight, length/height, mid-upper arm circumference, and skinfold thickness were taken according to the protocols recommended by the International Society of the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. Statistical Analysis: EPI-INFO (version 6.04) was used for analysis. Chi-square test was used to determine associations. Student's t-test was used to compare means of patients and matched controls. Probability P < 0.05 were taken as statistically significant. Results: The controls had higher weight than the patients with mean weight (standard deviation) of 13.7 (4.8) kg, and 12.0 (4.5) kg, respectively (P = 0.01). There were also statistically significant differences in the subscapular and biceps skinfold measurements between the patient and control groups (P = 0.00004 and 0.000008), respectively. Twenty-four (25.8%) and 5 (5.4%) of the patients had moderate and severe undernutrition compared to 6 (6.1%) and none, respectively, in the control group (P = 0.00005). Conclusion: Children with CP had significantly lower mean anthropometric parameters and were more malnourished compared with the control group of children matched for age, sex, and social class.
  2,171 277 1
CASE REPORTS
Endotracheal intubation in the prone position, in a patient with a high-velocity missile injury to the abdomen and thorax
Oyebola Olubodun Adekola, Ibironke Desalu, MO Obietan, GK Oguntuase, OO Olusoji
January-June 2014, 11(1):22-24
DOI:10.4103/1595-9587.137248  
The airway management in prone position secondary to penetrating posterior thoracic injury is challenging to the anesthetist. We described a successful endotracheal intubation under direct laryngoscopy at first attempt in the prone position in a 25-year-old male with a 6-foot hollow metal impacted in the right posterolateral thorax.
  2,284 141 -
ORIGINAL RESEARCH REPORTS
The efficacy of procin-x and celloid-s in the management of benign prostatic enlargement
KH Tijani, MK Adegoke, EA Jeje, KI Okolie, RW Ojewola, MA Ogunjimi
January-June 2014, 11(1):2-6
DOI:10.4103/1595-9587.137240  
Background and Objective: Despite a decent efficacy and safety profile, α1 - blockers (A1B) and the 5α - reductase inhibitors (5ARI), the conventional drugs used in the treatment of the symptoms of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), are commonly associated with adverse effects including sexual dysfunction and postural hypotension. Phytotherapy for the treatment BPH symptoms has been used for centuries. However, scientific data on their efficacy are sparse. Procin-X and Celloid-S (PC) are powdered plant material products with acclaimed anti- BPH properties. This study assessed their usefulness in the management of BPH. Materials and Methods: This was a single blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study conducted at our hospital involving 80 patients (divided in to 2 equal groups) with the clinical diagnosis of BPH. The study group were given PC while the controls were given multivitamin Capsules daily for a period of 14 weeks. All patients were evaluated at intervals for severity of symptoms, flow rates, prostate size, prostate specific antigen (PSA) and possible adverse effects including erectile function. Test of significance between the means was done using the Students Paired t-test. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: At the end of 14 weeks there was an reduction in symptom score by 5.7 and 1.6 in subjects and controls respectively (P < 0.05) and an increase in flow rate by 4.0mls/s and 1.1mls/s respectively (P < 0.05). There was a 60% and 14% reduction in PSA in the subjects and control respectively. There was also statistically significant increase in the erection score in the subjects. Conclusion: PC appear to be effective and in the management of the symptoms of BPH. The positive effects of PC on erectile function may however give them an advantage over the A1B and 5ARI drugs while the reduction in PSA may also give it a role in chemoprevention of prostate cancer. A large scale cohort study is needed to confirm these findings.
  2,200 177 -
Liver function tests in Nigerian women with severe preeclampsia
Ifeoma C Udenze, Adesina P Arikawe, Elaine C Azinge, Ephraim U Egbuagha
January-June 2014, 11(1):7-11
DOI:10.4103/1595-9587.137241  
Background: Preeclampsia is a common complication of pregnancy with high maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The new American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) guideline now includes elevation of liver enzymes as a criterion for the diagnosis of preeclampsia. Objectives: The objectives of this study is to compare liver function tests in preeclampsia and normotensive pregnancy and determine their relationship with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma creatinine, and uric acid levels in Nigerian women with severe preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study of 46 women with severe preeclampsia and 21 pregnant women as controls. These women attended the Antenatal Clinic at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos where women were consecutively recruited. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the systolic blood pressure (P = 0.002), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.004), plasma creatinine (P = 0.007), uric acid (P = 0.0001), plasma albumin (P = 0.029), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (P = 0.0001), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P = 0.0001), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) (P = 0.035), and unconjugated bilirubin (P = 0.023) between the group with severe preeclampsia and the normotensive pregnancy control group. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was however not significantly elevated. AST elevation was the most common anomaly in severe preeclampsia occurring in 54.3% of cases. There was no association between systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma creatinine, and uric acid in severe preeclampsia with and without abnormal liver function tests. Conclusion: Elevation of AST, ALP, GGT, and unconjugated bilirubin are common in Nigerian women with severe preeclampsia but may not all be of liver origin. These parameters were also not associated with indices of disease severity. The use of liver enzyme concentrations as adjuncts in preeclampsia diagnosis should be applied with caution in Nigerian women with preeclampsia.
  2,128 220 -
Pattern of complications and comorbidities among diabetic patients in a tertiary healthcare center in Nigeria
Oluwatosin O Kayode, Oluwakemi O Odukoya, Ifedayo A Odeniyi, Oluwarotimi B Olopade, Olufemi A Fasanmade
January-June 2015, 12(1):29-35
DOI:10.4103/1595-9587.160765  
Background: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) among Nigerian adults is increasing. Besides the well-recognized microvascular complications of diabetes, there is also a growing epidemic of macrovascular complications. Patients with diabetes may not only have diabetes-related complications but may also have nondiabetes-related comorbidities. Aim: To determine the pattern of chronic diabetic complications and coexisting morbidities in patients attending the diabetic outpatient clinic of a tertiary health care center in Nigeria and the factors associated with the presence of complications. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive survey carried out among patients attending the follow-up diabetic clinic of a tertiary health care center in Nigeria over a 3-month period. A systematic random sampling method was used and 422 eligible patients were selected and interviewed using pretested interviewer-administered questionnaires, after written informed consent was obtained. Data were analyzed using  Epi Info statistical package version 3.5.1. developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta Georgia (USA). Results: Of the 422 patients interviewed, 400 (247 females and 153 males) had complete data for analysis. Eighty-eight patients had comorbidities, and the commonest was hypertension in 63 (71.6%). Out of the 61 patients who had complications, the majority, that is, 39 (63.9%) had eye complications. Factors significantly associated with the presence of diabetic complications were the duration of diabetes, marital status, and the presence of diabetic comorbidities. Conclusion: The frequency of diabetic complications and comorbidities is quite high in the patients studied. There is a need to improve the standard of care of patients and to ensure optimal blood glucose control. This will go a long way in reducing the frequency of complications and comorbidities.
  1,997 220 -
Knowledge of chemotherapy and occupational safety measures among nurses in oncology units
Sylvia E Nwagbo, Rose Ekama Ilesanmi, Beatrice M Ohaeri, Abimbola O Oluwatosin
July-September 2017, 14(3):131-137
DOI:10.4103/jcls.jcls_88_16  
Background: The mutagenic and teratogenic effects of chemotherapeutic agents from repeated exposure during care are well documented. Nurses are among the healthcare professionals who constantly handle these agents, therefore their knowledge and pattern of occupational safety is a concern. This study sought to determine knowledge of chemotherapy and occupational safety measures of nurses in oncology units in the University College hospital, Ibadan. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study design, based on Protection Motivation theory was conducted among 100 purposively selected nurses from oncology unit of the hospital. Data were collected using a 54-item validated questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics at 0.05 level of significance was used. Results: Respondents were within 35.4 ± 5.1 years. More than half of the respondents had over 3 years practice in the oncology unit (mean 2.62, ± 1.1). Knowledge of chemotherapy among the cohort was high; mean 13.9 ± 2.2, 70 % understood the use of gloves and gowns as part of safety guidelines. On handling patients' clothes, only 57% understood that such should not be washed by hand or with other clothes. Cumulatively, 79.2% of the respondents knew about the safety guidelines, 4.7% had no knowledge while 16.1% were not sure of the correct guidelines for administering chemotherapy. Respondents' level of education was significantly associated with knowledge of chemotherapy, P<0.05; practice score was also significantly associated with respondents' cadre; P<0.05. Conclusion: Periodic and consistent update of nurses' knowledge supported by policies to enforce guidelines implementation is recommended.
  1,900 269 -
Children with neurodevelopmental disorders: The burden and psychological effects on caregivers in Lagos, Nigeria
Andrew T Olagunju, Yewande O Oshodi, Charles S Umeh, Olatunji F Aina, Wellington A Oyibo, Anna E Lamikanra, Foluso E. A. Lesi, Joseph D Adeyemi
January-March 2017, 14(1):2-7
DOI:10.4103/2468-6859.199162  
Background: Children with neurodevelopmental disorders (CNDs) are a group requiring more attention as their care is often challenging, particularly for parents with primary caregiving roles in resource-restricted settings. This study had set out to investigate the burden and psychological distress among caregivers of children with neurodevelopmental delays. Materials and Methods: A total of 68 caregivers were recruited during the 2013 annual autism health program organized by the College of Medicine, University of Lagos in collaboration with Guaranty Trust Bank, Nigeria and Blazing Trails, USA. Of these caregivers, 60 respondents (caregivers and children) were included in the final analyses due to poorly completed questionnaires. The Zarit Caregivers Burden Scale (ZCBS) and General Health Questionnaire version 12 (GHQ-12) were administered to elicit caregivers' experience with respect to burden and psychological distress, respectively. Results: Of the 60 participants included in the final analyses, the majority constituted parents (96.3%) with mothers accounting for 71.7%; 28 (46.7%) participants were government workers and 3 (5%) were full-time housewives. The mean age of CNDs was 6.8 (±3.2) years, and 33 (55.0%) were males. Delivery by cesarian section was reported in 19 (31.8%). The common presenting complaints by caregivers were inability to walk (32.7%), repetitive behavior (25.5%), difficulty with verbal communication (10.9%), nonsocialization (9.1%), seizures (9.1%), and hyperactivity (3.6%). Problems were noticed at ≤ 1 year in 46.7% while they were noticed after 2 years in more than half the children, and a little above one-eighth (14%) had siblings with similar problems. On the ZCBS, nine (15.0%) caregivers reported a significant burden. In addition, 23 (38.3%) caregivers had psychological distress. Caregivers' burden was significantly related to the report of psychological distress in caregivers (P < 0.001) and there was a trend toward the presence of psychological distress in almost all caregivers with children experiencing seizures. Conclusions: The findings in this study underscore the need for counseling and psychosocial support for caregivers of CNDs. Further research on the emotional experience of caregivers is also warranted.
  1,923 176 1
LETTER TO EDITOR
Scope of consumer protection act in medical profession in India
Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
January-June 2014, 11(1):25-25
DOI:10.4103/1595-9587.137250  
  1,806 190 -
ORIGINAL RESEARCH REPORTS
Diabetes mellitus: Identifying the knowledge gaps and risk factors among adolescents attending a public school in Lagos State
Lovelyn Otammi Ubangha, Tinuola O Odugbemi, Abdulhakeem O Abiola
October-December 2016, 13(4):193-198
DOI:10.4103/2468-6859.192302  
Background: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), a noncommunicable disease (NCD) in adolescents, is on the rise worldwide; therefore, knowledge which facilitates prevention and early detection is important. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of DM and self-reported risk factors among adolescents in a senior secondary school, in Surulere, Lagos State. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 144 male and 106 female senior secondary students with a mean age of 15.2 ΁ 1.3 years. Respondents were selected through multistage sampling technique. A structured pretested questionnaire was used to collect data. Epi Info 7.1.5 was used for data analysis and the level of statistical significance was set at 5%. Results obtained were presented with the use of frequency tables. Results: Two out of three respondents had heard of DM. Among those who were aware of the condition, 64.9% knew it referred to abnormally high blood glucose. Only (10.9%) knew it was a lifelong condition and less than a third (26.7%) knew the measurement of blood glucose with a device for the screening test. Less than 30% considered obesity, family history, diet, and physical inactivity as risk factors. Their main source of information was the mass media. Overall, 46% of respondents had good knowledge of DM. As regards the presence of lifestyle behavior/risk factor for DM/NCDs in the respondents, 8.4% of the respondents had a family history of DM, had consumed alcohol (28.8%), smoked tobacco (4.8%), and were overweight/obese (5.2%). Conclusion: Two-thirds were aware of DM, of which over half had inadequate knowledge of DM despite the existence of some risk factors. There should, therefore, be an inclusion of NCD education in the curriculum of secondary school students.
  1,736 238 -
Analysis of physiotherapy documentation of patients' records and discharge plans in a tertiary hospital
Olajide A Olawale, Ashiyat K Akodu, Emilia A Tabeson
July-December 2015, 12(2):85-89
DOI:10.4103/1595-9587.169687  
Background and Objective: Accurate documentation promotes continuity of care and facilitates dissemination of information concerning the patient to all members of the health care team. This study was designed to analyze the pattern of physiotherapy documentation of the patients' records and discharge plans in a tertiary hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 503 case files from the four units of the Physiotherapy Department of the hospital were examined for accuracy of records. The D-Catch instrument was used to quantify the accuracy of record structure, admission data, physiotherapy examination, physiotherapy diagnosis, patients' prognoses based on the plan of care, physiotherapy intervention, progress and outcome evaluation, legibility, and discharge/discontinuation plan. Results: “Accuracy of legibility” domain had the highest accuracy score: 401 (79.72%) case files had an accuracy score of 4. The domain “accuracy of the discharge/discontinuation summary” had the lowest accuracy score: 502 (99.80%) case files had an accuracy score of 1. Conclusion: Documentation of the plan of care made in the hospital for the period of this study did not fully conform to the guidelines of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT). The accuracy of physiotherapy documentation needs to be improved in order to promote optimal continuity of care, improve efficiency and quality of care, and recognize patients' needs. Implementation and use of electronically produced documentation might help physiotherapists to organize their notes more accurately.
  1,770 201 1
Association of selected primitive reflex patterns with motor development among Nigerian children with cerebral palsy (a hospital-based study)
Cozens Bankole Aiyejusunle, Olajide Ayinla Olawale, Ngozi Florence Onuegbu
January-March 2016, 13(1):12-16
DOI:10.4103/1595-9587.175481  
Background: The retention of primitive reflexes (PRs) is considered to be one of the primary impairments associated with cerebral palsy (CP). However, little is known about the pattern of retention of PRs across the different classes of CP. Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate, identify, and describe selected PRs in children diagnosed with CP and to determine their association with motor development. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional analytical survey conducted in the physiotherapy departments of four conveniently selected public hospitals in Lagos metropolis. Thirty-one children diagnosed with CP aged between 18-84 months were recruited. A PR profile consisting of 15 PRs were evaluated. The World Health Organization (WHO) windows of achievement for six key motor milestones were employed to explore their motor development. Results: The placing reflex presented the highest pattern of persistence (12.96%) across all the classes of CP. Children with spastic CP had the highest mean sum of retained PRs (6.24 ± 2.36). There was no significant association between the sum of retained PRs and motor development (P > 0.05). In addition, there were characteristic patterns of responses for specific PRs. Conclusion: The pattern of retained PRs varies for the different classes of CP. There is no significant association between the retention of PRs and motor development for children with CP. There is a need for further, in-depth study of these reflexes, individually, to better understand how they influence the motor development of children with CP.
  1,695 195 -
Liver enzymes and markers of inflammation in Nigerian adults with metabolic syndrome
Udenze Ifeoma Christiana, Ajie I Obiefuna, Ephraim U Egbuagha, Temitope A Oshodi
January-June 2015, 12(1):24-28
DOI:10.4103/1595-9587.160764  
Aims and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the plasma levels of the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in people with metabolic syndrome and to determine the association between the liver enzymes and obesity, insulin resistance, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adult Nigerians with metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: This was a case control study of 50 adult men and women with metabolic syndrome, and 50 age- and sex-matched males and females without metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)-Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) criteria. Written informed consent was obtained from the participants. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Venous blood was collected after an overnight fast. The ethics committee of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria, approved the study protocol. Comparison of continuous variables was done using the student's t-test. Regression and correlation analysis were used to determine the associations between variables. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in the liver enzymes ALP (P = 0.031), ALT (P = 0.019), and GGT (P = 0.037), as well as in the inflammatory markers CRP (P = 0.019) and the cytokine IL-6 (P = 0.040) between the two study groups. ALP and ALT showed significant correlation with waist circumference, BMI, fasting insulin, and waist/hip ratio (P < 0.05). Multivariate regression also identified ALT, AST, and ALP to be associated with IL-6 and CRP (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Liver enzyme levels were increased in metabolic syndrome and associated with obesity, fasting insulin, and CRP. Elevated liver enzymes may indicate dysmetabolism and increased cardiovascular risk in Nigerian adults with metabolic syndrome.
  1,724 141 -
Predictors of intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age group in Sagamu local government area in Ogun State, Western Nigeria: A community-based study
Olorunfemi Emmanuel Amoran, Olurinde O Oni, Albert A Salako
January-March 2017, 14(1):36-41
DOI:10.4103/2468-6859.199161  
Introduction: Worldwide, it has been estimated that violence against women is as serious a cause of death and incapacity among women of reproductive age as cancer, and a greater cause of ill health as traffic accidents and malaria combined. This study was therefore carried out to determine the prevalence and predictors of intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age group in Sagamu local government area (SLGA) of Ogun State, Nigeria. Settings: The study was conducted in SLGA Ogun State, which is located in the South Western part of Nigeria. A total of 500 women were interviewed in this study. One participant per each household was selected into the study. Methodology: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted between April 22, and May 13, 2013. Multistage sampling technique was used to select the participants into the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information. Results: The overall rate of intimate partner violence in the last 12 months among respondents was 16.0% and was the most common (65.0%) among age 25–39 years (P = 0.003) and those with primary education (P = 0.001). About 12.3% of the respondents had an abnormal General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Those who had abnormal GHQ were strongly statistically associated with intimate partner violence (P = 0.0001). Strain relationship (odds ratio [OR] =3.7, confidence interval [CI] =1.74–7.87), thinking that violence is acceptable (OR = 1.96, CI = 1.24–3.09) were predisposing factors for intimate partner violence while being mentally healthy (OR = 0.51, CI = 0.34–0.75) reduce the occurrence of violence by half after controlling for the effect of confounders. Conclusion: This study suggests that women education and healthy mental health is essential to the reduction of violence among intimate partners. Resolving it requires the provision of counseling services by educational and mental health sectors working together at the community, national and international levels.
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Grade of a doctor does not influence acquisition of knowledge and skill during CPR training in a developing country
Olufemi B Bankole, Ibironke Desalu, John O Olatosi, Babawale T Bello, Olanrewaju N Akanmu
January-June 2014, 11(1):12-16
DOI:10.4103/1595-9587.137243  
Background: Our teaching hospitals have different grades of doctors with varied exposure to cardiac arrest settings and their resuscitation skills are often inadequate. Objectives: We investigated whether the grade of a doctor influenced acquisition of knowledge and skill during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Doctors who attended a two-day resuscitation training program between December 2007 and April 2009 were scored on their knowledge of Basic Life Support, Advanced Life Support, and performance at five skill stations. A pass mark was awarded for a post-test score ≥ 75% and a pass in all skill stations. Results: A total of 130 doctors were studied with a mean of 10.99 ± 6.51 years since medical qualification (range, 2-28 years). The mean pre-test score was 54.43 ± 16.10% (range 30.5-91.8%) while the mean post-test score was 88.48 ± 6.8% (range, 54.6-94%), (P < 0.001). Mean post-test scores were not significantly different between grades. Mean scores for questions on Basic Life Support, defibrillator use, and drug therapy and in performance at skill stations were not significantly different between grades. A significant difference however existed in questions on cardiac arrest rhythms (P = 0.031). Sixty-five participants (50%) passed the post-test at first attempt. Consultants, senior registrars, and registrars had pass rates of 59.2%, 53.6%, and 43.5% respectively (P = 0.336). After re-training at performance stations, 124 doctors (95.4%) passed the test with no significant difference in overall pass in the various grades (P = 0.605). Conclusion : Grade of doctor did not affect the acquisition of knowledge and skill during resuscitation training.
  1,609 207 -
A comparative study of the effects of infrared radiation and warm-up exercises in the management of DOMS
Ayoola I Aiyegbusi, Adebimpe J Aturu, Adegoke M Akinfeleye
April-June 2016, 13(2):77-81
DOI:10.4103/2408-7408.179681  
Introduction: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is associated with temporary morbidity as a result of pain, soreness, and reduced muscular performance that affects the overall performance of the individual. Several interventional modalities have been studied without a conclusive evidence of efficacy. Objective: This study was carried out as part of a continuous attempt to find an effective and quick relief for DOMS. The study investigated the comparative effects of warm-up exercises and infrared radiation in ameliorating the symptoms associated with DOMS. Materials and Methods: Sixty volunteer subjects between the age of 16 years and 35 years had DOMS induced in the left biceps brachii muscle. They were randomized into three groups with 20 subjects in each group. The groups were allocated as follows: Group A as control that received no treatment, Group B had a bout of warm-up exercises consisting of 10 sets of maximal elbow flexion and extension after which DOMS was experimentally induced, and Group C had infrared radiation for 20 min  after which DOMS was experimentally induced. Assessment for muscle soreness, pain, and joint range of motion (ROM) was carried out immediately after inducing DOMS and it was repeated 24 h and 48 h later using the Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), deep palpation (DP), and goniometry, respectively. Results: The infrared group (Group C) had significantly lower scores on NPRS and DP throughout the 3 days compared with the control while the significant effects of warm-up exercises were seen from day 2. There was, however, no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the range of movement (ROM) scores. Compared with warm-up exercises (Group B), infrared resulted in significantly lower NPRS and DP scores and greater ROM only on day 1. Conclusion: Infrared radiation (IRR) is effective in ameliorating the symptoms of DOMS immediately after treatment on day 1 while the effect of warm-up exercises is seen 24 h later. IRR, thus, has a better effect than warm-up exercises in ameliorating the symptoms associated with DOMS.
  1,580 191 -
Utilization of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) among male students of a tertiary institution in Lagos State, Nigeria
Abdul-Hakeem Olatunji Abiola, Oludare Emmanuel Emehinola, Foluke Adenike Olatona, Adekemi Oluwayemisi Sekoni, Ramon Kolade Moronkola
July-December 2014, 11(2):39-43
DOI:10.4103/1595-9587.146498  
Background: Malaria is an eminently preventable, treatable and curable disease. Proven effective options to reduce morbidity and mortality include early diagnosis, combined with prompt effective therapy and malaria prevention through reduction of human-vector contact, emphasizing the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and utilization of malaria preventive methods among the students residing in Mariere Hostel of the University of Lagos, Akoka. Materials and Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Simple random sampling method was used to select the respondents. Pre-tested, structured, open and close-ended self administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Data analysis was done using Epi info version 3.5.1 statistical software package. The study was carried out in February 2012. Results: A total of 221 out of the administered 250 questionnaires were retrieved and analyzed giving a response rate of 88.4%. All the respondents were males with a mean age of 20 ± 2.8 years. The mean knowledge score (%) of the respondents was 76.5 ± 3.19. Although, 91.0% of the respondents recommended the use of ITNs to all students, only 31.6% use ITNs. The major reason given for non-usage of ITNs being that it is uncomfortable (45.3%). There was no statistically significant relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and utilization of ITN. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated high level of knowledge of malaria and positive attitude towards malaria prevention but poor malaria prevention practice as evidenced by poor usage of insecticide-treated nets. There is therefore need for more enlightenment campaigns to improve and sustain the knowledge and attitude towards malaria prevention as well as improve utilization of ITNs.
  1,608 158 -
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