Iodine status in pregnant Nigerian women; Does Gestational age matters?
Oluwatosin O Kayode1, Ifedayo A Odeniyi2, Oluwarotimi B Olopade3, Sandra O Iwuala2, Oluwakemi O Odukoya4, Olufemi A Fasanmade2
1 Department of Medicine, State Specialist Hospital, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Medicine, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Unit, College of Medicine, University of Lagos; Department of Medicine, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Surulere, Idi-Araba, Lagos State, Nigeria
3 Department of Medicine, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Surulere, Idi-Araba, Lagos State, Nigeria
4 Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos State, Nigeria
Dr. Oluwatosin O Kayode
Department of Medicine, State Specialist Hospital, PMB 603, Akure, Ondo State
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Iodine deficiency affects over 2.2 billion individuals globally. It is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in pregnancy and remains the leading cause of preventable infant intellectual deficits. This study set out to determine the relationship between gestational age and iodine status in Nigerian women. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study with a total study population of 220 pregnant and 110 nonpregnant participants. Urinary Iodine Excretion (UIE) was performed using the Sandell–Kolthoff reaction. Pregnant women were grouped into three trimesters (0–13 weeks, 14–26 weeks, and ≥27 weeks.). Analysis of variance was used in comparison of means, Chi-square test used in analyzing proportions, while P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The median UIE was 135 μg/L in pregnant and 120 μg/L in the nonpregnant women. Among the pregnant women, 133 (60.5%) had insufficient iodine intake (UIE <150 μg/L) while 29 (27.3%) of the nonpregnant women had inadequate iodine intake (UIE <100 μg/L). The median UIE was 140, 139, and 120 μg/L in the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively (P = 0.13). The median UIE declined with advancing gestational age. The percentage of pregnant women with inadequate iodine intake was 53.6% in the first trimester and 59% and 72.6% in the second and third trimesters, respectively (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Three-fifths of the pregnant women had inadequate iodine intake. The median UIE decreased with advancing gestation. Iodine supplementation before and during pregnancy would help improve the iodine status in pregnancy.