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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 15-19

Aortic aneurysm: A life-threatening condition in a low-resource nation

1 Department of Surgery, Cardiothoracic Surgery Unit, College of Medicine, University of Lagos and Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria
2 Department of Anaesthesia, College of Medicine, University of Lagos and Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Oyebola Olubodun Adekola
Department of Anaesthesia, College of Medicine, University of Lagos and Lagos University Teaching Hospital, P. M. B. 12003, Surulere, Lagos
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcls.jcls_44_18

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Background: Aortic aneurysm is said to be uncommon in the black population; however, with the modification in lifestyle of the dark-skinned people, and improved diagnostic facilities in Sub-Saharan African nations, a surge in its presentation is more likely. If undiagnosed, aortic aneurysm can be catastrophic. We determined the epidemiology pattern and outcome of aortic aneurysm at our institution. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of patients who presented with aortic aneurysm from 2000 to 2017. A pro forma was designed to analyze the bio data, characteristics of the aneurysms, clinical manifestation, treatment, and outcome. The Crawford, Stanford, and DeBakey criteria were used to classify the aortic aneurysm. The surgical management of the aneurysm was resection and its replacement with synthetic polytetrafluoroethylene prosthesis with antibiotic prophylaxis under general anesthesia. Results: A total of 17 patients were recruited, with a mean age of 62.75 ± 20.92 years. A high proportion were above 65 years, i.e., 7 (41.2%), and male gender, i.e., 10 (58.8%). The most common location of aortic aneurysm using Crawford criteria was Type IV followed by Type I, with Stanford criteria being Stanford Type B (13) and with DeBakey being Type III (3). Five operated were fusiform in shape. A higher proportion of patients, i.e., 14 (82.4%), had coexisting hypertension, and a positive history of smoking, i.e., 7 (41.2%). The 30-day mortality was 64.7%, the operative mortality was 35.3%, and three patients (17.6%) were loss to follow-up. A positive history of smoking increased the risk of dead, relative risk 3.375, 95% confidence interval 0.677–5.909, P = 0.04. Conclusion: Aortic aneurysm, though uncommon, is not a rare disease among cardiovascular disorders in a low-resource environment. The most common shape and location were fusiform and Stanford Type B or DeBakey Type III, respectively. There was associated high 30-day mortality (64.7%).

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