|ORIGINAL RESEARCH REPORT
|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 36-41
Predictors of intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age group in Sagamu local government area in Ogun State, Western Nigeria: A community-based study
Olorunfemi Emmanuel Amoran1, Olurinde O Oni2, Albert A Salako1
1 Department of Community Medicine and Primary Care, College of Health Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria
2 Department of Clinical Research, Kansas City Veterans Affairs Medical Centre, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
|Date of Web Publication||30-Jan-2017|
Olorunfemi Emmanuel Amoran
Department of Community Medicine and Primary Care, College of Health Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: Worldwide, it has been estimated that violence against women is as serious a cause of death and incapacity among women of reproductive age as cancer, and a greater cause of ill health as traffic accidents and malaria combined. This study was therefore carried out to determine the prevalence and predictors of intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age group in Sagamu local government area (SLGA) of Ogun State, Nigeria. Settings: The study was conducted in SLGA Ogun State, which is located in the South Western part of Nigeria. A total of 500 women were interviewed in this study. One participant per each household was selected into the study. Methodology: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted between April 22, and May 13, 2013. Multistage sampling technique was used to select the participants into the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information. Results: The overall rate of intimate partner violence in the last 12 months among respondents was 16.0% and was the most common (65.0%) among age 25–39 years (P = 0.003) and those with primary education (P = 0.001). About 12.3% of the respondents had an abnormal General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Those who had abnormal GHQ were strongly statistically associated with intimate partner violence (P = 0.0001). Strain relationship (odds ratio [OR] =3.7, confidence interval [CI] =1.74–7.87), thinking that violence is acceptable (OR = 1.96, CI = 1.24–3.09) were predisposing factors for intimate partner violence while being mentally healthy (OR = 0.51, CI = 0.34–0.75) reduce the occurrence of violence by half after controlling for the effect of confounders. Conclusion: This study suggests that women education and healthy mental health is essential to the reduction of violence among intimate partners. Resolving it requires the provision of counseling services by educational and mental health sectors working together at the community, national and international levels.
Keywords: Intimate partner violence, Nigeria, predictors, Sagamu local government area, women of reproductive age
|How to cite this article:|
Amoran OE, Oni OO, Salako AA. Predictors of intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age group in Sagamu local government area in Ogun State, Western Nigeria: A community-based study. J Clin Sci 2017;14:36-41
|How to cite this URL:|
Amoran OE, Oni OO, Salako AA. Predictors of intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age group in Sagamu local government area in Ogun State, Western Nigeria: A community-based study. J Clin Sci [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 May 22];14:36-41. Available from: http://www.jcsjournal.org/text.asp?2017/14/1/36/199161
| Introduction|| |
Physical violence is defined as scratching, pushing, shoving, throwing, grabbing, biting, choking, shaking, slapping, punching, burning, use of a weapon and use of restraints or one's body size, or strength against another person. Physical violence occurs across society, regardless of age, gender, race, sexuality, wealth, and geography. It affects both males and females in an intimate relationship in form of threats of such acts, coercion, or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life. Worldwide, at least one out of three women has been beaten, coerced into sex or otherwise abused during her lifetime. Most often, the abuser is a member of her own family.,
Several studies have reported that more than 60% of women worldwide have been abused., In 48 population-based surveys worldwide, 10%–69% of the women reported an assault by an intimate partner. In addition, the prevalence of violence during pregnancy ranges from 4% to 20% in developing countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, 13%–49% of women have been reported to be domestically assaulted by an intimate partner and 5%–29% reporting physical violence in the year before the survey., About 31% of Nigerian women are physically abused by an intimate partner during their lifetime. This has been reported to be higher in other studies.,,
Worldwide, it has been estimated that violence against women is a serious cause of death and incapacity among women of reproductive age as cancer, and a greater cause of ill-health than traffic accidents and malaria combined. Violence against women also has a profound impact on development. It perpetuates poverty by reducing women's capacity to work outside the home, their mobility and access to information, and children's school attendance.
The social and economic costs of intimate partner violence are enormous and have ripple effects throughout society. Women may suffer isolation, inability to work, loss of wages, lack of participation in regular activities and limited ability to care for themselves and their children. The significance of women's health and socioeconomic well-being is increasingly recognized and seen as a necessity for sustainable development, and it is now recognized that women constitute a major force for change., Gender-based violence, however, is a major constraint to women's full participation in society. This study was therefore carried out to determine the prevalence and predictors of intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age in a rural town in Ogun State, Nigeria.
| Methodology|| |
Background of the study area
The study was conducted in Sagamu local government area (SLGA) of Ogun State, which is located in the South Western part of Nigeria. SLGA is one of the twenty local government areas in Ogun State. It was carved out of the former Ijebu Remo local government in 1991 and has a total land area of 68.03 km 2. It is bounded on the west by the Obafemi Owode local government area, on the east by both Ikenne and Odogbolu local government area and also shares a boundary with Ikorodu local government area of Lagos State in the South.
According to the 2006 census, the area has a population of 253,412 inhabitants which consists of mainly remo-speaking people of Ogun State. Other ethnic groups such as the Hausas, Igbos, and the Benue people are well represented. Most of the towns are either semi-urban or rural. Other major towns in the local government besides Sagamu include Ogijo, Sotubo, Ode-lemo, Emuren, and Simawa. The local government area has 15 political wards, 12 of these wards fall within the Sagamu metropolis. The wards were created based on the different community settlement. Each ward represents different community. SLGA is a major transit region between the Southwest, Southeast, and the Northern part of Nigeria.
This analytical cross-sectional study that quantitatively explored the determinants of intimate partners violence among women of reproductive age group in Ogun State, Nigeria was conducted between April 22, and May 13, 2013. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the participants into the study. One participant per each household was selected into the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data.
The minimum sample size required for the study was estimated to be 161 using the formula:
Where n is the sample size:
- Z-α is the standard normal deviate, set at 1.96 (for 95% confidence interval [CI])
- D is the desired degree of accuracy (taken as 5% and)
- P is the estimate of our target population with domestic violence = 29%.
Multistage sampling technique was used to obtain a representative sample of the communities in Ogun State.
A sampling frame of all the 15 wards or communities in SLGAs was drawn. The ward where the study was carried out was selected by simple random sampling (balloting). The ward selected was ward 6 where Makun community resides.
Using the major roads in the community, four streets were selected. All houses in the street selected were visited. All women of the reproductive age group who lives with a partner and was available at the time of visit in each household were interviewed in the houses selected.
The questionnaire was pretested among twenty individuals in Ikenne local government area. Appropriate adjustments were then made to the questionnaire to improve its internal validity.
The instrument used was a semi-structured questionnaire consisting of two parts, namely:
Section A consisted of sociodemographic section which includes information on sociodemographic data such as age, marital status, religion, employment status, ethnic group, and educational status.
Section B consisted of factors associated with intimate partner violence adapted from WHO questionnaire on intimate partner violence. Intimate partner violence was elicited by asking the respondents. “Have you been beaten up in the last 12 months.” Those beaten up were regarded to have experienced intimate partner violence. Strain relationship was elicited by asking “Do you argue a lot with your partner.”
Section C contains the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) questionnaire.
One participant per household who consented to take part in the study was interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, which was administered by a trained interviewer. The interviewers were four medical students rotating through the Community Medicine and Primary Health Care Department of the Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital during the study and one resident doctor. All participants were interviewed individually over a 10–15 min period in either English or Yoruba. Completed questionnaires were scrutinized on the spot and at the end of the daily field sessions for immediate correction of erroneous entry.
Ethical approval was obtained from the Olabisi Onabanjo Teaching Hospital Ethics Board. Confidentiality on respondents' information was kept the purpose; general content and nature of the study were explained to each respondent to obtain verbal and written consent before inclusion into the study.
The data were coded and entered into a computer database using Statistical Package For Social Sciences Version 15 2011. Percentages or means and standard deviation were computed for baseline characteristics of women interviewed. The data analysis focused on univariate frequency table and bivariate cross-tabulations that identify important relationships between variables. Respondents with a score of more than three were classified as mental ill-health using GHQ-12 questionnaire.
The relationships between variables were examined through bivariate analysis, by computing odds ratio (OR) at 95% confidence level and Chi-squared and t-tests were used where appropriate to determine relationship between any two variables. Predictor variables were restricted to outcome measures that were statistically significant. P ≤ 0.05 or confidence limits which did not embrace unity (1) was considered as statistical significance.
| Results|| |
Sociodemographic characteristics of respondents
A total of 500 women were interviewed in this study with 80% response rate. The mean age of the respondents was 38.23 ± 8.17 years. Half (50.4%) of the respondents had primary education, 24.0% had no formal education, 17.7% had only secondary education, while 7.9% had tertiary education.
The majority (89.6%) were married, 10.4% were cohabiting. Most (63.4%) of the respondents were Christians, 35.0% were Muslims while 1.6% were traditional religion worshippers. The majority (94.4%) of the respondents were of the Yoruba tribe, 2.6% were Igbos, 1.8% were Hausas, and 1.2% were of other minority tribes such as Ibibio, Nupe [Table 1].
|Table 1: Sociodemographic characteristics of respondents and intimate partner violence|
Click here to view
Factors associated with intimate partner violence
The overall rate of intimate partner violence in the last 12 months among respondents was 16.0%. It was the most common (65.0%) among the young adult's age group 25–39 years (P = 0.003). Those with primary education (65.4%) and those with no formal education (38.0%) were mostly associated with intimate partner violence while it hardly occurred among those with tertiary education ([0.0%], P = 0.001). It is statistically significantly associated with marriage (98.7%) while compared with those cohabiting ([1.3%], P = 0.009). It is more common among the Christians (71.2%) when compared with the Muslims (28.3%) and the traditional religion believers ([5.0%], P = 0.004) [Table 2].
|Table 2: Other factors influencing intimate partners violence among respondents|
Click here to view
The longer the relationship, the less likely it was to be associated with intimate partner violence (P = 0.023). However, those with strain relationship were more likely to be involved with domestic violence (P = 0.00001). About 12.3% of the respondents had an abnormal GHQ. Those who had abnormal GHQ were strongly statistically associated with intimate partner violence (P = 0.0001). Furthermore, female with who think that violence is acceptable was not statistically significantly associated with intimate partner violence (P = 0.09).
Predictors of intimate partner violence
[Table 3] also shows the adjusted OR for factors associated with intimate partner violence among the study population. Strain relationship (OR = 3.7, CI = 1.74–7.87), thinking that violence is acceptable (OR = 1.96, CI = 1.24–3.09) were predisposing factors for intimate partner violence while being mentally healthy (OR = 0.51, CI = 0.34–0.75) reduce the occurrence of intimate partner violence by half after controlling for the effect of confounders.
|Table 3: Determinants of intimate partners violence among respondents using multivariate logistic regression|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
The overall rate of intimate partner violence in the last 12 months among respondents was found to be 16.0% and most common among the young adults (age group 25–39 years). This rate is lower than several other similar studies conducted in the last decade.,,, This suggested changing trend may be attributed to increased awareness about the rights of women and increased women empowerment in the Nigerian communities.
The longer the relationship, the less likely it was to be associated with violence. However, those with strain relationship were more likely to be involved with domestic violence. This has been corroborated by several studies.,, Strain in relationship threatens the security of freely engaging in daily activities and free movement; thereby restricting women's ability to participate in several activities which may include income generating activities, depriving them of the much needed household income and the ability to carry out their additional responsibilities of providing for the family and the security of their families, especially the young girls and the older members. Studies have shown that women who do not have access to real economic opportunities are at greater risk of experiencing gender-based violence.,
The study shows that those with normal mental health were twice more likely not to experience. Intimate partner violence which can lead to depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, sleep difficulties, eating disorders, emotional distress, and suicide attempts. These can also be associated with perpetrating or experiencing violence later in life. Several studies have overwhelmingly shown an association between domestic violence and mental health.,,, Poverty, patriarchal societies, alcohol abuse, unemployment. and other factors have been cited as possible causes of intimate partner violence for decades. In sub-Saharan Africa, economic poverty of the female gender and gender inequality play definite roles in engendering domestic violence which harms women's health.,,
The study further shows that primary educational status, Christian religion, and poor cultural beliefs were statistically significantly associated with intimate partner violence. This study and other similar studies ,, have describes factors on personal, situational, and sociocultural levels. Promising strategies to address gender norms and decrease a woman's vulnerability to violence, which may include optimizing access to basic education and changing the built and social environments in which women and girls live to optimize their safety., Female education is pivotal to the achievement of millennium development goals (MDG's) and has been widely promoted due to its overall benefits.
| Conclusion|| |
This study concludes that violence by intimate partners is an important public health problem. The study further suggests that women education and healthy mental health is essential to reduction of domestic violence among intimate partners. Resolving it requires the provision of counseling services by the educational and mental health sectors working together at the community, national and international levels. Female education is pivotal to the achievement of MDG's and has been widely promoted due to its overall benefits.,, At each level responses must include empowering women and girls, reaching out to men, providing for the needs of victims and increasing the penalties for abusers.
The authors acknowledge all members of the Department of Community Medicine and Primary Care for the contribution and encouragement in the course of the study.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Child Welfare Information Gateway. Trauma Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Addressing the Mental Health of Sexually Abused Children; 2007. Available from: http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/trauma/trauma.pdf
. [Last accessed on 2015 Feb 15].
United Nations. Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women, Adopted by the General Assembly on 20 December, 1993, UN Doc. A/RES/48/104; 1993.
Shamu S, Abrahams N, Temmerman M, Musekiwa A, Zarowsky C. A systematic review of African studies on intimate partner violence against pregnant women: Prevalence and risk factors. PLoS One 2011;6:e17591.
Ntaganira J, Muula AS, Masaisa F, Dusabeyezu F, Siziya S, Rudatsikira E. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda. BMC Womens Health 2008;8:17.
Zhao Q, Huang ZJ, Yang S, Pan J, Smith B, Xu B. The utilization of antenatal care among rural-to-urban migrant women in Shanghai: A hospital-based cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health 2012;12:1012.
Krug GE, Dahlberg LL, Mercy AJ, Zwi B. Violence and Health. In: Anthony AO, Lazano R, editors. World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002. p. 90-6.
Nosike AN. Violence against women and sustainable development: A contemporary perspective. In: Oruwari Y, editor. Women, Development and the Nigerian Environment. Ibadan: Vintage Publishers; 1996. p. 53-62.
Odujinrin O. Wife battering in Nigeria. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1993;41:159-64.
Owoaje ET, Olaolorun FM. Intimate partner violence among women in a migrant community in Southwest Nigeria. Int Q Community Health Educ 2005 2006;25:337-49.
Fatusi AO, Alatise OI. Intimate partner violence in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: Women's experiences and men's perspectives. Gend Behav 2006;4:764-81.
Montero I, Martín-Baena D, Escribà-Agüir V, Ruiz-Pérez I, Vives-Cases C, Talavera M. Intimate partner violence in older women in Spain: Prevalence, health consequences, and service utilization. J Women Aging 2013;25:358-71.
Han A, Stewart DE. Maternal and fetal outcomes of intimate partner violence associated with pregnancy in the Latin American and Caribbean region. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2014;124:6-11.
Saile R, Neuner F, Ertl V, Catani C. Prevalence and predictors of partner violence against women in the aftermath of war: A survey among couples in Northern Uganda. Soc Sci Med 2013;86:17-25.
Pico-Alfonso MA, Garcia-Linares MI, Celda-Navarro N, Blasco-Ros C, Echeburúa E, Martinez M. The impact of physical, psychological, and sexual intimate male partner violence on women's mental health: Depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder, state anxiety, and suicide. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2006;15:599-611.
Ellsberg M, Jansen HA, Heise L, Watts CH, Garcia-Moreno C; WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women Study Team. Intimate partner violence and women's physical and mental health in the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence: An observational study. Lancet 2008;371:1165-72.
Hetrick SE, Purcell R, Garner B, Parslow R. Combined pharmacotherapy and psychological therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010;2:CD007316.
Stein DJ, Ipser JC, Seedat S. Pharmacotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;4:CD002795.
Jewkes R. Intimate partner violence: Causes and prevention. Lancet 2002;359:1423-9.
Daoud N, Urquia ML, O'Campo P, Heaman M, Janssen PA, Smylie J, et al
. Prevalence of abuse and violence before, during, and after pregnancy in a national sample of Canadian women. Am J Public Health 2012;102:1893-901.
Gielen AC, O'Campo PJ, Faden RR, Kass NE, Xue X. Interpersonal conflict and physical violence during the childbearing year. Soc Sci Med 1994;39:781-7.
Wagman JA, Namatovu F, Nalugoda F, Kiwanuka D, Nakigozi G, Gray R, et al
. A public health approach to intimate partner violence prevention in Uganda: The SHARE project. Violence Against Women 2012;18:1390-412.
Musser PH, Murphy CM. Motivational interviewing with perpetrators of intimate partner abuse. J Clin Psychol 2009;65:1218-31.
Abramsky T, Watts CH, Garcia-Moreno C, Devries K, Kiss L, Ellsberg M, et al
. What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence? Findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence. BMC Public Health 2011;11:109.
Bazargan-Hejazi S, Medeiros S, Mohammadi R, Lin J, Dalal K. Patterns of intimate partner violence: A study of female victims in Malawi. J Inj Violence Res 2013;5:38-50.
Fawole OI, Aderonmu AL, Fawole AO. Intimate partner abuse: Wife beating among civil servants in Ibadan, Nigeria. Afr J Reprod Health 2005;9:54-64.
Koch E, Thorp J, Bravo M, Gatica S, Romero CX, Aguilera H, et al
. Women's education level, maternal health facilities, abortion legislation and maternal deaths: A natural experiment in Chile from 1957 to 2007. PLoS One 2012;7:e36613.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]