Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
  • Users Online: 766
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
 Table of Contents  
ABSTRACT
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 62-84

Book of abstracts


Date of Web Publication17-Nov-2015

Correspondence Address:
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


Rights and PermissionsRights and Permissions

How to cite this article:
. Book of abstracts. J Clin Sci 2015;12:62-84

How to cite this URL:
. Book of abstracts. J Clin Sci [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Jul 18];12:62-84. Available from: http://www.jcsjournal.org/text.asp?2015/12/2/62/169704

12th Annual Faculty Conference of the Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine of the University of Lagos held at Hall 36, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi Araba, Lagos on 10th June, 2015


  FCS/RD/15/01 Top


Fetomaternal outcome of preterm prelabour rupture of membranes in a Tertiary Hospital in Lagos, South-West, Nigeria

A. Ajepe, K. S. Okunade, O. E. Moses1, S. I. Omisakin, A. Sekumade

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lagos Island Maternity Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: adegbengaajepe@yahoo.com

Introduction: Preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM) is an important obstetric complication. It accounts for a third of all preterm deliveries with associated increased risks of fetomaternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed to determine the incidence and fetomaternal outcome of PPROM in a tertiary hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive retrospective study involving all cases of PPROM managed over a 5 year period. Relevant information was extracted from antenatal case notes and the neonatal unit records. Data was analyzed using Epi-info statistical software package. Results: The incidence of PPROM in this study was 2.15%. The mean gestational age at delivery was 32.69 ± 2.43 weeks. Caesarean section was the mode of delivery in 49.32% of cases, 8.14% of the women had clinical evidence of chorioamnionitis, 4.98% had puerperal sepsis while 1 maternal death was recorded. Ninety four percent (94%) of the births were live births while 6% were stillbirths. Low birth weight was noted in 79.14% and birth asphyxia was observed in 7.44%. Neonatal unit admission was necessary in 72.45% of the live births. Perinatal mortality in this study was 17%. Conclusion: PPROM is an important cause of adverse fetomaternal outcome with increased perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Adequate antenatal care should be advocated so that appropriate risk assessment can be done and intervention provided where applicable. Neonatal units should also be equipped to be able to render necessary care for these preterm neonates.


  FCS/FM/15/02 Top


The relationship between the severity of autism and spoken language abilities in Nigerian children

Helen Nwanze

Department of Surgery, CMUL, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: nwanze_126 ho@yahoo.co.uk

Introduction: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are the most prevalent developmental disability in children. Speech disorders are an integral component of ASD. ASD appears to be on the rise in Nigeria also. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between ASD severity and language performance in 56 ASD children. Materials and Method: Participating children were recruited from the speech therapy clinic of LUTH. Their mean age was 4 years. The sex ratio was 8:3 in favour of boys. Speech samples were obtained from each individually during a 2½ hour interactive session. Language stimulation cards and objects were employed to elicit speech. The mean length of utterance (MLU) gauged syntactic complexity in each child. ASD severity was measured by the childhood autism rating scale (CARS). A score of 30 and above indicates ASD. Results: The children's mean CARS score was 35.2, reflecting moderate autism. The mean score for boys exceeded that of the girls at 36 and 33 receptively. The children's mean MLU was 0.7 morphemes, indicating single word utterances. Female participants posted a slightly higher MLU than males with 1.1 and 0.6 morphemes respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between MLU and CARS scores r = -0.4; P < .01. This correlation was significant for boys also r = -0.5; P < .001. Conclusion: Language delays were severe. An MLU of 4.4 morphemes is expected in 4 year olds. Language competence varied significantly with ASD severity. It was suggested that improvements in language competence may be obtained if aspects which modify ASD severity are reduced.


  FCS/FM/15/03 Top


Preeclampsia is associated with metabolic syndrome and increased cardiovascular disease risk in women

Udenze Ifeoma Christiana

Department of Clinical Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: kristyudenze@ymail.com

Background and Objectives: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women globally. Preeclampsia has been linked to increased risk of developing heart disease later in life. The best approach for the prevention of CVD after preeclampsia is yet unclear. Studies assessing CVD risk post pre-eclampsia have included metabolic risk factors that define the metabolic syndrome. This review examines the association between preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease in the context of metabolic risk factors which define the metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: The PUBMED data base was searched for relevant articles from 1999 to March 2015. The search phrase was “preeclampsia and metabolic syndrome". After two levels of screening, by title and abstract, prospective and retrospective studies with case-control, cohort or cross sectional study designs that included at least 50 subjects were selected. Results: Twenty seven articles that reported the prevalence or odds for the metabolic syndrome and its components following a history of preeclampsia and the prevalence of preeclampsia in women with pre pregnancy metabolic syndrome were selected. A total of 12 case control, 11 cohorts and 4 cross sectional studies were included. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome ranged from 10.9% to 82.3% after a preeclamptic pregnancy. 11 out of 12 case– control studies (91.6%) showed a statistically significant difference in prevalence of metabolic syndrome following a pre-eclamptic pregnancy between the cases and controls. Six out of eight cohort studies (75%) reported prevalence values greater than 10% for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome following a preeclamptic pregnancy. The odds for developing metabolic syndrome following a preeclamptic pregnancy ranged from 1.23-3.6. 83.3% of the studies reported an odds ratio greater than 2 for the development of metabolic syndrome following a preeclamptic pregnancy. The prevalence of developing preeclampsia in women with metabolic syndrome prior to pregnancy was also high. It ranged from 26.7% to 45%, compared to 4.7% to 17% among the controls and the odds ranged from 3.77-7.7. Conclusion: The prevalence and odds for developing metabolic syndrome after a preeclamptic pregnancy is high suggesting metabolic syndrome may be involved in the pathogenesis of CVD following preeclampsia. The involvement of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in the pathogenesis of CVD post preeclampsia will provide evidence on the potential health benefits of a modifiable CVD risk screening programme for women with a history of preeclampsia.


  FCS/FM/15/04: Top


Assessment of leakage radiation from a theratron Phoenix Cobalt-60 teletherapy machine

M. O. Akpochafor, A. D. Omojola, S. O. Adeneye, O. E. Akinlami

Department of Radiation Biology, Radiotherapy, Radiodiagnosis and Radiography, College of Medicine, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: akpochafor@yahoo.com

Introduction: A Theratron Phoenix Cobalt 60 teletherapy machine is currently in use in a notable centre in the heart of Lagos, Nigeria. International regulations require that the average leakage of a teletherapy machine head be less than 2 mRh−1 (20 μSvh−1) at 1 m from the source. This study assessed the level of radiation safety to personnel working within radiation controlled areas by comparing the measured dose rates within the treatment room and control console with recommended standards. MaterialsandMethod: A RadEye B20-ER Multi-Purpose Survey Meter was used to measure the dose rates at various points within the treatment room during beam OFF (at the isocenter, 10 cm from the isocenter and 20 cm from the isocenter) and control console during beam ON. Results: The average dose rates after treatments at the isocenter, 10 cm from the isocenter, 20 cm from the isocenter and control console room were 0.84 μSvh−1, 0.42 μSvh−1, 0.28 μSvh−1 and 0.23 μSvh−1 respectively. Conclusion: The study showed that dose rates at the treatment room and control console were within recommended dose rate limits.


  FCS/PGS/15/05 Top


Verification of an irregular field program of a treatment planning system using a locally designed pelvic phantom

M. O. Akpochafor, A. D. Omojola, S. O. Adeneye, S. M. Oniyangi, C. C. Iloputaife

Department of Radiation Biology, Radiotherapy, Radiodiagnosis and Radiography, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: akintayoomojola@gmail.com

Introduction: Verification of an Irregular Field program of a Treatment Planning System using a 6MeV photon beam has been carried out using a locally designed pelvic phantom made of Plexiglas. Materials and Methods: A CT scanner was used for acquiring images and a Precise PLAN treatment planning system was used for beam application. The prostrate, bladder, adipose, muscle and rectum had compositions of carbon, water and magnesium oxide while the constituents for bone was carbon, calcium, water and magnesium Oxide. Results: The maximum percentage deviation with large field sizes of 2224 cm2 for six inhomogeneous inserts and with bone only inhomogeneous inserts were-3.95% and 2.38% respectively. The maximum percentage deviation with small field of 55 cm2 size with six inhomogeneous inserts was-3.57%. The percentage deviation between the solid water phantom and the locally designed pelvic phantom was-3.35%. Conclusion: The Irregular Field program showed an overall accuracy of ± 4% for small and large field sizes.


  FCS/RD/15/06 Top


Pattern of contraceptive use among women attending the family planning clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital: A 3-year review

E. Daramola E, K. S. Okunade, S. I. Omisakin, O. E. Moses1, A. Ajepe, A. Sekumade

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lagos Island Maternity Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: ebundaramola@yahoo.co.uk

Introduction: Contraceptives are methods or devices used to prevent pregnancy. In Nigeria, the contraceptive prevalence (among women aged 15-49 years) was reported at 14.6% in 2008. This study was aimed to determine the pattern of contraceptive use and socio-demographic characteristics of users of family planning services in LUTH. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective review of all women who opted to use any form of contraceptive offered at the family planning clinic over a 3-year period. Relevant information was extracted from the case records of these women. Data was analyzed using Epiinfo statistical package. Results: A total of 594 women opted to use a form of contraceptive during the study period. Fifty four percent (54%) of the women users were of the Yoruba tribe while 89.4% were of the Christian faith. Married women accounted for 97.6% of the users with 68.85% having parity of between 2-4. Majority (77.6%) of the women had at least a tertiary level of education, with 46.1% of them involved in a form of skilled occupation. Nurses were the commonest source of referrals (42.9%). A larger proportion of the women (46.3%) preferred Jadelle implant, followed by Copper-T insertion (31%) and Implanon implant (9.8%) in that order. Conclusion: Equipping medical personnel with the information and necessary skill needed for health education and service provision will help to meet the increasing demand for family planning services and thus avert unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortion and their sequelae.


  FCS/RD/15/07 Top


HIV-AIDS related maternal mortality in Lagos University Teaching Hospital: A five-year review

A. Sekumade, K. S. Okunade, O. E. Moses1, S. I. Omisakin, A. Ajepe, E. Daramola

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lagos Island Maternity Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: askumade@gmail.com

Introduction: An estimated 19.2 million women worldwide are infected with HIV and most of these women reside in Africa. While many maternal deaths take place in regions where HIV is prevalent, the exact contribution of HIV/AIDS to maternal mortality is not known. The aim of this study was to determine the causes, contributing factors and characteristics of HIV/AIDS related maternal mortality in LUTH. Materialsand Methods: This is a retrospective review of the records of births and maternal deaths in HIV-infected women in LUTH over a 5-year period. Relevant data was collected and analysed to determine the causes and circumstances of the deaths. The maternal mortality ratio was also determined and compared with that of HIV negative women. Results: HIV-infected women accounted for 13.7% of all maternal deaths. Most of the women (80%) were unbooked and 70% did not have access to Antiretrovirals (ARVs). Non-obstetric deaths accounted for most of the deaths (70%). Conclusion: HIV/AIDS is an important cause of maternal mortality in HIV-infected women in LUTH. It is important to formulate strategies to increase the number of women registered for antenatal care and who therefore will have access to Voluntary Counselling & Testing (VCT) and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART).


  FCS/FM/15/08 Top


Canavan disease: An incidental finding in a Nigerian infant

C. I. Yakubu, N. K. Irurhe1, C. I. Esezobor2

Department of Radiation Biology, Radiotherapy, Radiodiagnosis and Radiography and 2Paediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, 1Department of Radiation Biology, Radiotherapy, Radiodiagnosis and Radiography, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: nirurhe@unilag.edu.ng

Introduction: Canavan disease (CD) is a rare, autosomal recessive inherited neurological disorder classified as leukodystrophy. CD is also called Canavan-Van Bogaert-Bertrand disease, aspartoacyclase deficiency or aminoacycyclase deficiency. The underlying genetic defect is an enzyme defect of aspartocyclase. The enzyme normally breaks down N-acetylaspartate acid (NAA) into building blocks of myelin, the fat membrane that surrounds nerve with loss of this enzyme, the NAA builds up in the cells impairing the normal function of the nervous system with time the brain has a characteristic spongy degeneration. CaseReport: A 10-month-old male infant born to a 31-year-old P2 + 0 woman of a nonconsanguineous marriage at full birth. He had resuscitation for 15 minutes during post delivery period. The baby had feeding difficulties from birth with abnormal muscle tone and seizure. On clinical examination the patient showed a global developmental delay, macrocephaly, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, bilateral spasticity with hyperreflexia and extensor plantar responses. A provisional diagnosis of cerebral palsy was made by the Paediatricians to rule out space occupying lesion. Results: Transfontanelle ultrasound revealed marked enhanced acoustic attenuation of white matter devoid of corpus callosum; the brain mantle thickness was 32 mm. The ventricles were not dilated. Brain computerized tomography (CT) revealed megalocephaly and cranial disproportion. On contrast enhanced axial CT of the brain showed extensive diffuse white matter hypodensities throughout the brain. Conclusion: The radiological findings were used to diagnose leukodystrophy (Canavan disease) highlighting the diagnostic value of CT scan and US scan. However, there is no known cure. Management is mainly conservative.


  FCS/FM/15/09 Top


Age-related variation in body fat distribution among male undergraduate medical students in Lagos

N. M. Ibeabuchi, H. A. Omotayo, J. O. Agbara1

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: mikeonyibe@yahoo.co.uk

Introduction: The pattern of fat distribution is related to a large number of variables of clinical importance. Although anthropometric indices have been used as surrogates of central body fat distribution, systematic information on age variations in regional and central body fat distribution amongst young adult Nigerians in the literature is not readily available. Aim/Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of body fat distribution in relation to age groups amongst Nigerian undergraduate medical students in urban Lagos. Materials and Methods: Nine anthropometric measurements were taken from 245 male medical students aged between 16-27 years including: Body mass and stature; chest, waist and maximum gluteal circumferences; medial calf, triceps, subscapular and supraspinale skin folds. Thereafter, four indices including the body mass index, sub scapular/triceps, centripetal fat skin folds ratio, waist-hip ratio and conicity index were derived. Results: The results showed that there were statistically significant increasing trends of the estimated indices of central fat distribution with age. These significant associations persisted even after controlling for the body mass index, suggesting that BMI had little or no influence on central fat distribution. Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a significant positive trend of increased central adiposity and fat distribution with increasing age in male undergraduates. Such a trend of enhanced fat accumulation in central region of the body may have serious health implications for this section of the population.


  FCS/FM/15/10 Top


Sonographic determination of splenic volume in children with sickle cell anaemia in steady state

C. I. Yakubu1, N. K. Irurhe1,2, F. O. Olowoselu1, C. I. Esezobor3, E. O. Temiye3

1Department of Radiation Biology, Radiotherapy, Radiodiagnosis and Radiography, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Departments of 2Radiation Biology, Radiotherapy, Radiodiagnosis and Radiography and 3Paediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: nirurhe@unilag.edu.ng

Introduction: Accurate noninvasive assessment of splenic volume is used in the clinical management of patients with these diseases. Previously, techniques for measuring splenic size have relied on nuclear scintigraphy and computerized tomography. However, ultrasonography (US) is now the imaging modality of choice because it does not use ionizing radiation; in addition, it is sensitive, cheap, and readily available. Materials and Methods: This study involved 200 children with sickle cell anaemia in steady state attending the paediatric sickle cell clinic and 200 age and sex matched controls (normal children)attending the general paediatric outpatient clinic. All patients were scanned at the Radiology department of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital by transabdominal ultrasonography (TAUS) using (Aloka prosound 3500 plus) ultrasound scanner with a curvilinear 3.5MHz transducer. Calculations of the splenic volume were based on measurement of splenic length (L) width (W) and thickness (T) as obtained on two images placed side by side on the monitor utilizing the standard ellipsoidal formula (LxWxT). Results: The relationship between age and sex of the subjects ranging from 1 to 15year old (mean 7.9 and 8.1 years) were analysed. Splenomegaly was observed in 113 (56.5%) of the patients. Fifteen (7.5%) had autosplenectomy. The mean splenic volume in the patients ranged between 36-331 cm3 as compared with 21-239 cm3 in the controls. There was no gender variation in both groups. There was no significant correlation between splenic volume and the frequency of blood transfusion. A strong correlation between age and splenic volume was established. Conclusion: This study has provided standard values of normal splenic volume in sickle cell anaemia children in our environment. It has also confirmed the age and sex related changes in the spleen.


  FCS/FM/15/11 Top


Assessment of peak kilovoltage accuracy and operational practices on dose optimization in selected X-ray centres in Lagos State

M. O. Akpochafor, A. D. Omojola, H.B. Ajayi, S. O. Adeneye

Department of Radiation Biology, Radiotherapy, Radiodiagnosis and Radiography, College of Medicine, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: akpochafor@yahoo.com

Introduction: Optimization in diagnostic medical exposure implies keeping the exposure doses of patients to the minimum necessary to achieve the required diagnostic objective. The aim of this study was to assess the Peak Kilovoltage (kVp) and dose to see if they meet recommended optimization standards. Materials and Methods: Ten X-ray centres were used for this study. kVp and dose were measured using a non-invasive Unfors Thinx RAD kVp meter. The kVp accuracy was examined by placing the Unfors Thinx RAD on the patient's couch at a distance of 100 cm from the source to measure the kVp while the X-ray machine kVp was varied by selecting kVp values within the range of 50 kVp to 120 kVp at a fixed tube current of 20 mA. Results: The kVp accuracy test for six X-ray units H1, H2, H5, H6, H7 and H8 were within acceptable limit of ± 5% at all selected kVp values, two X-ray units H4 and H9 showed compliance at lower kVp values selected, while two of the examined machines H3 and H10 were not within the acceptable limits at all selected kVp values. Also, the measured doses for PA chest X-ray revealed that H3, H6, H8 and H10 out of the ten centres investigated exceeded the guidance level of 0.4 mGy, while the rest were within acceptable guidance levels. Conclusion: Assessment of peak kilovoltage accuracy and operational practices on dose optimization should be done regularly with set standards to reduce patient dose.


  FCS/RD/15/12 Top


Plunging ranular: Report of three cases and literature review

A. C. O. Olojede, E. Emmanuel1, O. M. Gbotolorun, R. A. Adewole, A. O. Ayodele2, I. C. Emeka, S. A. B. Oluseye2, O. Runsewe2

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit, General Hospital, Lagos Island, 1Department of Oral Pathology, College of Medicine, Lagos State University, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: clemoji2000@yahoo.co.uk

Plunging ranulas are also known as deep, diving, cervical or deep plunging ranula. Plunging ranulas are rare cystic masses in the neck that are mucous retention pseudocysts from an obstructed sublingual gland. They “dive” by extending inferiorly beyond the free edge of the mylohyoid muscle, or through a dehiscence of the muscle itself, to enter the submandibular space. Specific diagnostic tests for ranula are not available however, some imaging demonstrate a simple cystic lesion in the characteristic location and can be used to delineate relevant surgical anatomy. Plunging ranulas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic neck masses, specifically when seen extending over, or through, the mylohyoid muscle. Surgical excision of the collection and the involved sublingual gland is performed for definitive treatment. There is paucity of reported cases of these lesions in our region. They usually appear in conjunction with oral ranula. We report three cases of plunging ranula with associated oral swelling in a 3 year old female, 6year old female and 4 year male who presented with a painless, slow growing neck mass following earlier swelling in the floor of the mouth with literature review.


  FCS/FM/15/13 Top


Personality characteristics as predictors of job stress among Health Care professionals in a Teaching Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria

C. S. Umeh

Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: ucharles@yahoo.com

Introduction: Health care provision requires emotional involvement, personal commitment and dedication as well as continuous delivery of service even at odd hours. Sometimes there could be job overlap leading to role conflict and ambiguity among professionals. These are capable of causing distress among providers. However, some people with certain personality characteristics could cope better with this kind of job. This study is aimed at identifying the personality characteristics of health care professionals that could predict job stress. Materials and Methods: The participants were 800 health care providers (medical doctors, nurses, pharmacists, laboratory scientists, physiotherapists and others) of Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos Nigeria aged between 20 years and 50 years (Mean = 27.87, SD = 4.77) comprising 308 males and 492 females. The Big Five Personality Inventory (BFI), Index of Self-Esteem (ISE) and Job-Related Tension (JT) Scales were administered to them during random medical screening exercise for the employees of the institution. Their scores on the instruments were obtained and subjected to descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis using BFI personality features and Self-esteem as predictor variables. Results: The result shows that a significant model emerged using the enter method F (6, 792) = 23.14, P < .05. The model explains 14% of the variance (Adjusted R2=.143). The beta scores of the predictors revealed that self–esteem, agreeableness and neuroticism are significant contributors to the variance observed with self-esteem having the greatest effect. Conclusion: The result was discussed in the light of the need for personality assessment as a requirement for employment of health care providers.


  FCS/FM/15/14 Top


A comparative bibliometric study of two renowned scholarly medical journals in Nigeria: 2001–2010

A. S. Obajemu, A. Ibegwam1, F. C. Ekere2, H. O. J. Akinade

Medical Library, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, 1Department of Library, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia, 2Department of Library and Information Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu, Nigeria.

E-mail: ayobajemu@gmail.com

Background: Human intellectual activities are increasing and information generated is rising as well. The volume of these information resources and sources are enormous. Bibliometric research methodology serves as an evaluating tool to see and to know the direction of research activities of the scholars as published in Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine and African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences between 2001 and 2010. Apart from determining the scientific quantity and quality of publications, it also showed its facets of research efforts of the scholars. It is a useful method for enhancing quality collection development. Objectives: The research work showed a comparative bibliometric study of two renowned medical journals in Nigeria. It determined patterns of research works within a period under review, the degree of collaboration by the scholars, citation analysis, subjects and regional distributions. Materials and Methods: Information/data were transcribed on the cataloguing cards for the generation of databank. Subjects analyses were carried out using Medial subject headings (MESH). Medical tree structure was used to determine the broad spectrum down to the specifics of each concept. Bradford's Mathematical model was used to analyze the data. Results: 1037 research articles were published within the period of study. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine (NQJHM) pooled 374 (36.07%) while African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences had the highest number of articles published 663 (63.93%). Research activities reached its peak in the last quarter. The figure showed 314 (30.27%) of the total pooled. Our results showed that of the 21,093 references cited, NQJHM produced 7234 (34.30%) and AJMMS recorded the highest work 13,859 (65.70%). In terms of yearly distribution 2004 pooled the highest with 2746 (13.02%) and the lowest was in 2002 with 1761(8.35%). Three authorship collaborations ranked the highest, followed by two authorships. 134 subjects analyzed in the study. Subject productivity showed that dental sciences pooled the highest with 80 (7.7%) and followed by Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome with 48 (4.6%). Lagos State pooled the highest (360), followed by Oyo State (357) all situated in South West of Nigeria. Conclusion: Adoption of bibliometric research method in analyzing journals for a period of time is a useful strategy to know the direction of publication, its strength, weakness, unravels concentrated areas and also the low areas and in turn helps to improve in the areas of their deficiencies.


  FCS/UGS/15/15 Top


Knowledge and use of mHealth among doctors and nurses of Lagos State general hospitals

B. O. Owolabi, T. O. Odugbemi, K. A. Odeyemi

Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: bukolaowolabi@hotmail.com

Introduction: Mobile health is gaining importance worldwide and changing the way healthcare and services are provided, with its benefits being reported in disease prevention, chronic disease management and healthcare delivery improvement. Its full potential in health care delivery in Nigeria is only starting to emerge. This study assessed the knowledge and use of mHealth among doctors and nurses of Lagos state general hospitals. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional descriptive study done among 65 doctors and 135 nurses of Lagos state general hospitals selected using multistage sampling method. Data was collected with pretested self-administered questionnaires and analysed with Epi Info 7 statistical software package. Results: Majority (Doctors 84.6%, Nurses 91.1%) had not heard of the term “mHealth", but, most (Doctors 96.9%, Nurses 87.4%) were aware of the use of mobile phones in health care delivery. Only three (Health call centres/Healthcare telephone help-line, Appointment reminders and Mobile telemedicine), out of eleven mHealth components listed were known by most. Only Patient monitoring/surveillance and Mobile telemedicine were mostly used by doctors while Treatment compliance and Appointment reminders by nurses. Majority were willing to use (Doctors 95.4%, Nurses 88.9%). Over 80%of respondents had used their phones to deliver health related information while about one-fifth (Doctors 36.9%, Nurses 23.0%) had applications used for mHealth purposes on their mobile device. Conclusion: Knowledge and use of mHealth services were low. Doctors and Nurses should be enlightened, trained and mHealth services should be made available in the hospitals. Use of smart phones should be encouraged as they portend better adaptability for mHealth use.


  FCS/FM/15/16 Top


Effects of combined aerobic and stretching exercises on the cardiopulmonary functions of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer survivors

H. A. Aweto, S. R. A. Akinbo, O. A. Olawale

Department of Physiotherapy, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. E-mail: awetohappiness@gmail.com

Introduction: The incidence rate of breast cancer (BC) has continued to rise with low survival rate in Nigeria. Reduction in cardiopulmonary capacity of BC survivors is positively associated with premature death. Therapeutic approaches that will improve cardiopulmonary functions and survival rate of BC survivors are of optimal importance. This study investigated the effects of combined aerobic and stretching exercise on cardiopulmonary functions of premenopausal and postmenopausal Breast cancer survivors. Methods: Fifty-four eligible BC survivors referred from the Radiotherapy and Oncology Department of the Hospital participated in the study but four-eight completed it. They were randomly assigned to groups A and B and each group had subgroups 1 (premenopausal) and 2 (postmenopausal). Group A underwent combined aerobic exercise using treadmill and stretching exercise for 12 weeks while Group B was the control group. Results: Significant improvements were observed in the cardiovascular variables of subjects in Groups A(1&2) (Resting systolic blood pressure (A1: P = 0.01* ; A2: P = 0.01*), Resting diastolic blood pressure (A1: P = 0.01* ; A2: P = 0.004*), Resting rate pressure product (A1: P = 0.001* ; A2: P = 0.02*). Significant improvements were also observed in the pulmonary variables of subjects of Groups A(1&2) (Arterioxy haemoglobin saturation (A1: P = 0.001* ; A2: P = 0.02*), Forced Vital Capacity (A1: P = 0.13; A2: P = 0.05*), Maximal Oxygen Uptake (A1: P = 0.03* ; A2: P = 0.15). Conclusion: Combined aerobic and stretching exercises brought about significant therapeutic effects on selected cardiopulmonary parameters in female BC survivors.




  FCS/FM/15/17 Top


A comparative study of the effect of manual therapy and traction on pain, disability and quality of life of patients with non-specific neck pain

A. K. Akodu, I. O. Owoeye, F. I. Oladimeji

Department of Physiotherapy, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: akoduashiyatkehinde@yahoo.co.uk

Introduction: Neck pain is one of the most frequent musculoskeletal complaints; it is second only to low back pain in terms of cost and prevalence. The effectiveness of manual therapy and traction alone in treating Non-specific neck pain remains inconclusive. This study compared the effects of manual therapy and manual traction on pain, disability and quality of life (QoL) in patients with non-specific neck pain. Materials and Methods: A total of 12 subjects with non-specific neck pain were recruited from the Physiotherapy Clinics of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Idi-Araba and Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja and were randomly assigned to 4 different groups (A, B, C and D). Group A received manual therapy only, Group B received manual traction only, Group C received both manual therapy and traction while Group D was the control who received counselling sessions on neck care education. The treatment sessions lasted for 30 minutes, twice weekly for 4 consecutive weeks. All the groups were assessed for pain, disability and quality of life. Results: Manual therapy group showed a greater level of improvement in pain intensity and functional disability, overall quality of life and physical health than the other groups. Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. On comparison, there was a significant difference in pain intensity and functional disability. Conclusion: Manual therapy alone is effective in the reduction of pain and improvement of disability in patients with non-specific neck pain.


  FCS/NFM/15/18 Top


Evaluation of common pathological findings in kidney and liver of patients undergoing ultrasound investigation in Asaba, Nigeria<</b>

T. Nwankpa, A. D. Omojola

Department of Radiology, Federal Medical Centre, Asaba, Delta, Nigeria.

E-mail: akintayoomojola@gmail.com

Background and Purpose: It has been observed that common sonographic findings in kidney and liver of patients undergoing ultrasound investigations have not been properly evaluated and documented in Asaba. This study tries to evaluate if there is a prevalent rate of kidney or liver problem associated with a particular gender type and age bracket. Materials and Methods: A government established medical centre in Asaba which accommodates quite a large number of patients who come for abdominal and abdominopelvic scans respectively with emphasis on the kidney or liver was used. Data was retrieved from the department Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) covering a period of one year on sonographic findings in kidney and liver of 277 patients. This was achieved using a T-test (at α= 0.05) for evaluation. Results: There was no statistically significant difference indicating that one gender had a prevalence rate of occurrence to the other for both kidney and liver for >0.05. Also, the occurrence within the mean age bracket of (41-50years) for patients who had kidney pathological conditions was significant for ≤0.05. The mean age bracket of (51-60 years) for patient with liver pathological conditions was highly significant for ≤0.05. Cases of hydronephrosis had the highest occurrence in patients with kidney problems and Hepatomegaly had the highest occurrence in patients with liver problems. Conclusion: The study showed that certain middle age group had more cases of kidney and liver pathological conditions within this area.


  FCS/UGS/15/19 Top


Prevalence, attitude and determinants of intimate partner violence among women in mainland local government area, Lagos State

I. L. Ndigwe, I. P. Okafor, O. O. Odukoay

Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: Ivyavrillar@yahoo.com

Introduction: Intimate partner violence is a serious and growing public health issue accounting for up to five healthy years of life lost by women in developing countries. This study was done to assess intimate partner violence among women in intimate relationships in Mainland Local Government Area, Lagos State. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in May 2014. A total of 384 women were selected by multi-stage sampling method. Data was collected with intervieweradministered questionnaire and analyzed using Epi Info 7. Level of significance was set at 5% (P < 0.05). Results: Mean age of respondents was 32.9 years. Prevalence of IPV was as follows: Physical abuse (35.4%);Emotional abuse (52.9%) and Sexual abuse (30.7%). Overall IPV prevalence rate was 66.15% and only 26.56% had negative attitude to IPV. Younger respondents (18-25 years) suffered the most sexual abuse and more of them had positive attitude to IPV. Igbo women were significantly more emotionally abused. Respondents with more children suffered more physical abuse and had more positive attitude to IPV. Significant factors which increased IPV were; personal factors (young age, Igbo tribe, increased alcohol and drug use, multiple partners), community factors (beliefs that women are subject to men, acceptance in communities for men to beat their wives). Conclusion: The study has shown high prevalence of IPV especially emotional violence. Awareness should be created on the negative effects of IPV and interventions targeted at personal and community factors should be implemented to reduce the burden.


  FCS/PGS/15/20 Top


Prevalence and aetiological profiles of facial nerve paralysis: A five-year review of Tertiary Health Institutions in Kano State, Northwestern Nigeria

J. S. Usman, C. A. Gbiri1, F. G. Sumaila

Department of Physiotherapy, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, 1Department of Physiotherapy, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: jibrilphysio@yahoo.com

Introduction: Facial nerve paralysis is a cranial nerve dysfunction which is cosmetically distressing and functional disabling resulting sometime to social disadvantages, it is associated with underline causes, the main aim of the study is to determine the prevalence and aetiological profiles of facial paralysis in Kano, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This study involved three tertiary and health institutions in Kano, Nigeria between January 2006 and December 2010. Out of 11145 patients' records, 1003 cases had indication of facial nerve paralysis but 936 met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted using research pro-forma. Data was analyzed using z-test for proportional significance, and Chi square test at 0.05 significant levels. Results: Prevalence rate of facial paralysis was 9.1% and mostly common (48.1%) between age of 20-38 years with males (52.8%) and the married (71.2%) more affected. Left side of the face was involved more frequently (53.0%) than the right side (46.4%) and bilateral (0.6%). Lower motor neuron lesion type (74.1%) was more common. Most common co-morbidity associated with facial paralysis was infections, closely followed by diabetes mellitus and pre-eclampsia. Highest incidence was in the year 2010, and the least was in 2006. z-values showed that minor difference in the prevalence exist between male and female. There was an association between each of age, occupation, comorbidities and place of residence and the aetiologic factors. However, the strength of relationships was weak and the degree of association is very weak as determined using Cramer V and Lambda. Conclusions: Prevalence of facial paralysis is relatively high in this region. It is affected by urban dwelling, being a full housewife and co-morbidity. Lower motor neuron type and sudden onset were predominant. This calls for greater awareness for preventive measures.


  FCS/UGS/15/21 Top


Knowledge and utilization of preventive healthcare services among women in Lagos mainland local government area, Lagos State

O. O. Aribike, I. P. Okafor, A. A. Roberts

Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: oluwatoyin_aribike@yahoo.com

Background: Non communicable diseases continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide with incidence increasing rapidly in low and middle income countries. Poor utilization of preventive healthcare services contributes to this high burden. This study aimed at assessing the knowledge and utilization of preventive healthcare services among women in Lagos, Nigeria. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out at Mainland LGA between May-July 2014. A total of 322 respondents were selected using the multistage sampling method. A pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information from the respondents. Data were analyzed using Epi info software version 7 and the level of significance was set at 5% (P < 0.05). Results: The mean age was 34.24 ± 13.54years. Only 7.14% had no formal education and 38.51% of respondents earned <18,000 Naira monthly. Awareness of specified NCDs was 82.61% and of preventive healthcare services for the NCDs was 65.22%. Virtually all (99.05%) of the respondents had poor knowledge of these preventive services. Utilization rates were equally poor; Clinical breast examination (45.06%), pap smear (26.11%), blood pressure measurement (78.18%), blood sugar test (53.33%), human papilloma virus vaccination (16.55%) and mammogram(14.79%). Conclusion: Respondents had poor knowledge and poor utilization of preventive healthcare services. There is need for education to improve their knowledge and utilization of these services with emphasis on younger, less educated women and women with lower incomes.


  FCS/PGS/15/22 Top


Comparative efficacy of two physiotherapy approaches in restoring functional performance in individuals after abdominal surgery: A clinical controlled study

S. R. Akinbo, C. A. Gbiri, T. O. Ajepe

Department of Physiotherapy, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: calebgbiri@yahoo.com

Objective: To compare the efficacy of spirometry and chest-physiotherapy approaches in restoring functional performances in individuals after abdominal surgery. Methods: This study involved 90 individuals (randomized into 3 groups of 30), who had abdominal surgery in a Nigerian tertiary health institution. Group 1 received chestphysiotherapy; group 2 received incentive-spirometry and group 3 received the combination both approaches. Functionality was assessed using 10-Meters Walk Test (10MWT) and Barthel Index (BI) while a spirometer was used to assess Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Force Expiratory Volumeone-second (FEV1). The BI, FEV1 and FVC were assessed at 24-hour preoperation, and 24-hour, 3rd-day and 7th-day post-surgery while 10MWT was assessed at 24 hour pre-surgery and 7th-day post-surgery. Data was analysis with Analysis of Variance and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Eighty-seven participants completed the study while 3 died. The groups were matched in all the variables at the pre-operation stage. There was drastic reduction in BI, 10MWT, FEV1 and FVC scores at immediate 24-hour post-surgery but increased rapidly throughout the 7-day period. The group who received the combined therapy performed significantly better (P < 0.05) in 10MWT at 7th day post-operation. There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in the BI, FEV1 and FVC among the groups at the 3rd and 7th days post-operation. Conclusion: Abdominal surgeries cause remarkable decline in functional performances. Early and monitored chest-physiotherapy and incentive spirometry result in rapid improvement in functional performance in individuals within a week of abdominal surgery. However, the combination of the two approaches yields better result in improving functional performances.


  FCS/FM/15/23 Top


Psychoactive substance use among students in Tertiary Institutions in Abeokuta, Ogun State

O. A. Olojede, A. O. Sekoni1

School of Information and Communication Technology, Ogun State Polytechnic, 1Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: aosekoni@cmul.edu.ng

Background: Psychoactive substance use among young people is an issue of public health concern which, has been studied extensively, albeit, among secondary school students and specific subsets of tertiary university students. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and type of psychoactive substance used by students in tertiary institutions in Abeokuta, Ogun State. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross sectional descriptive design carried out among students in Federal College of Education Osiele, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic and Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. A total of 420 students were selected from the three institutions using multistage sampling method. Results: The mean age at first substance use was 17.37years. Life time prevalence for alcoholic drinks is as follows; energy drinks (58.90%), refined spirits (52.40%), beer (52.30%) and herbal drinks (49.20%) while for other substances, analgesics was consumed by all, inhalants (29.30%) hallucinogens (19.60%), tranquilizers/sedatives (18.30%), stimulants (18.30%) and narcotics (15.10%). Analysis of current use of psychoactive substances showed that the most commonly consumed substances are energy drinks (51.20%), herbal drinks (24.00%), refined spirits (23.30%), beer (19.30%), stimulants (7.40%), narcotics (5.20%), sedatives (3.10%), hallucinogens (2.60%) and inhalants (1.90%). The main reasons for substance use were to feel a sense of belonging and to improve sexual performance. Injecting drug and cigarette smoking was not common. Conclusion: Tertiary institution students in this study consume substances which can become detrimental to their health.


  FCS/PGS/15/24 Top


Recovery indices of undergraduates to submaximal bout of exercise

J. O. Onah, A. O. Ezeukwu1

Department of Physiotherapy, School of Postgraduate Studies/Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, 1Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu, Nigeria.

Introduction: Physical fitness level of an individual which is an indicator of cardiovascular fitness and functionality status need to be known before engaging in an exercise training program. But when it is not known, a submaximal exercise is preferably prescribed. In the past, cardiovascular fitness has been assessed by such variables as resting heart rate, resting blood pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume, endurance capacity, maximum oxygen consumption etc. This work was under taken to determine the recovery indices of undergraduates following a sub maximal bout of exercise. Methods: A total of 252 subjects were involved in the study, 156 males and 96 females. Harvard step test was administered to the subjects. The indices measured included: Heart rate recovery index, systolic blood pressure recovery index, diastolic blood pressure recovery index, pulse deceleration index, and physical fitness index. The recovery indices of male and female subjects were compared. Result: The result obtained indicated that male subjects had a statistically significant (P < 0.05) i.e. α = 0.012 quicker heart rate recovery time than the females. Male subjects also had a statistically significant (P < 0.05) i.e. α = 0.000 physical fitness index. A delayed recovery of these parameters has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality, diabetes, endothelial dysfunction and cardiac disease. Conclusion: Therefore, this study concluded that within its limitations, that male undergraduates have a significant heart rate recovery time and a significant physical fitness index and a general quicker recovery time. The physical fitness index rating indicated that all the subjects were below average (55-64 for males and 50-60 for females). Thus a graded but controlled physical activity should be encouraged among undergraduates.


  FCS/PGS/15/25 Top


Optimization of single slot antenna for microwave ablation

S. O. Adeneye, E. O. Nwoye1, A. Z. Ibitoye, M. O. Akpochafor, M. A. Aweda, A. T. Ajekigbe

Department of Radiation Biology and Radiotherapy and 1Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: asokjune@gmail.com

Background: Many microwave antennas had been proposed to deliver localized electromagnetic wave to the tumor. Some of these antennas are not without shortcomings especially high power reflection coefficient, low power dissipation into the tissue, and excessive backward heating along the antennas shaft. Objective: To design a new antenna to create low power reflection coefficient, high power dissipation and large ablation volume. Materials and Methods: The single slot antenna for hepatic MWA was designed using Finite Element Methods (FEM) in the COMSOL MULTIPHYSICSTM version 4.4 software. A total number of 140 antenna models were designed out of which one was selected based on the variation in its reflection coefficient, total power density and Specific Absorption Ratio. The inner and outer conductors of the antenna were modelled using perfect electric conductor (PEC) boundary conditions. The model was simulated at multiple discrete lengths of slot within the range (2.5≤ z ≤4.5 mm) at 0.1 mm interval from the tip of the probe (z = 0 mm),using operating frequency of 2.45 GHz. Results: The antenna has a reflection coefficient of-44.67618 dB, with a corresponding total power dissipation of 9.47744 W with input power of 10 W at slot size 3.5 mm. Conclusion: Findings in this study indicate that the antenna operates with low reflection coefficient which at high power levels prevents overheating of the feedline, thereby making it is suitable for ablation of hepatic and other tumors.


  FCS/PGS/15/26 Top


Relationship between spasticity and health related quality of life in patients with cerebral palsy

Z. O. Olaniyan, A. K. Akodu1, O. A. T. Olawale

Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, 1Department of Physiotherapy, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.

Introduction: There is growing awareness of health related quality of life in cerebral palsy patients, though; there is paucity of data in determining its relationship with spasticity in cerebral palsy patients. The knowledge of this will provide better understanding of how spasticity affects health related quality of life in cerebral palsy patients, thereby, helping to proffer realistic goals and interventional programs aimed at meeting the challenges of individuals with cerebral palsy. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between spasticity and health related quality of life in cerebral palsy patients. Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was employed in this study. A total of fifty individuals with cerebral palsy, Males (54%) and Females (46%) within the age range of 5 years and 18 years (9.06 + 3.38 years) participated in the study. Measurement of spasticity was done by the researcher using the modified Ashworth scale (MAS) and the parents or primary caregivers of the participants were required to complete the Caregiver Priorities and Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities (CPCHILD) questionnaire which is a 37-item questionnaire that collects information on the health related quality of life of their wards. Data was analysed separately for each of the six domains of the questionnaire using the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient on SPSS version 17 and the level of significance was set at P = 0.05. Results: According to the results, the domains of comfort and emotions with communication and social interaction do not have an influence on spasticity. The results also revealed that there was a significant relationship between spasticity and health related quality of life in cerebral palsy patients (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Personal care and mobility which are aspects of the health related quality of life should be paid more attention to as they are negatively affected by spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy. Health related quality of life is also affected by spasticity, giving that, with a decrease in spasticity, there will be an increase in the health related quality of life of the individual.


  FCS/FM/15/27 Top


Prevalence and self-perceived risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders amongst solid waste collectors in Lagos State

O. Kayode, T. O. Odugbemi, I. Akinmokun1, C. O. Akitoye

Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, 1Department of Surgery, Accident and Emergency Centre/Orthopaedic Unit, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: kayodeolranti@yahoo.com

Background: Epidemiological studies have indicated an association between musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and physical work demands. Solid waste collection and disposal is physically demanding and associated with a high frequency of MSDs. Objectives: This study determined the prevalence and self-perceived predisposing factors to MSDs amongst solid waste collectors in Lagos State, Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional design was used to survey 200 solid waste collectors selected using simple random sampling. An interviewer-administered questionnaire adapting the Standardized Nordic questionnaire was used to collect data on prevalence of MSDs. Perceived risk factors were assessed using questions on ergonomic work factors. The questionnaires were analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.1(2008). Chi square was used to determine the association between risk factors and the occurrence of MSDs. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Self-reported 12-month prevalence of MSDs among solid waste collectors in Lagos State was 71.0%.The low back (42.0%) was the most commonly affected body part, followed by the neck (37.5%), shoulders (31.5%), knees (26.5%) and upper back (25.5%). The risk of musculoskeletal disorder was increased with work-related factors such as repetitive movement of body parts during work, working under extensive pressure and awkward positioning of body at work. Conclusion: Despite high prevalence of MSDs among the solid waste collectors, there was poor attitude of managing the pain associated with the conditions. Therefore, a prompt intervention programme aimed at training MSW collectors on how to effectively prevent and manage musculoskeletal conditions would be required.


  FCS/UGS/15/28 Top


Knowledge of, attitude towards sickle cell disease and practice of sickle carrier screening among students of Lagos State Polytechnic, Isolo, Lagos State

B. M. Fashola, I. P. Okafor, C. O. Akitoye

Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: fashbarak@yahoo.com

Introduction: Sickle cell disease (SCD) has a major social and economic implication on affected children and their families. Recurrent sickle cell crises interfere with an individual's life, especially with regards to education, work and psychosocial development. This study assesses the knowledge of sickle cell disease, the attitude towards the disease, the practice of sickle cell genetic screening and factors affecting them among final year students of Lagos State Polytechnic Isolo, Lagos State. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out among all the final year (587) students of Lagos State Polytechnic Isolo, Lagos State. Data collection was done using selfadministered questionnaire and analyzed using Epi-info 7. Level of significance was 5% (P < 0.05). Results: 308 out of the 587 final year students took part in this study, giving a response rate of 52.5%, mean age was 22.76 ± 3.97. Over half (57.14%) of the respondents were females, most of them (81.17%) were single, Muslims (49.35%), and majority (78.59%) were Yoruba. Most of the respondents (87.66%) had a good knowledge of the disease, their source of information being the medical professionals. Almost all (99.35%) had a positive attitude towards sickle cell disease. Most of the respondents (61.04%) however had not been screened for the disease. The factors found to influence the level of knowledge of respondents were age (P = 0.009) and marital status (P = 0.041). Conclusion: This study shows a good knowledge of the disease and a positive attitude towards the disease but their practice of the screening was poor. Their knowledge could be improved by incorporating health education courses related to sickle cell disease into their curriculum, and to promote practice of sickle cell genetic screening amongst them by making test freely accessible to them at no cost.


  FCS/PGS/15/29 Top


Work-related stress and coping strategies among doctors and nurses in anti-retroviral therapy clinics in Tertiary Health Institutions in Lagos State

O. C. Ugwu, T. O. Odugbemi, O. O. Onigbogi, A. T. Onajole

Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: onyekachrstn@yahoo.com

Introduction: Anti-retroviral therapy clinics in tertiary health institutions in Lagos State are high volume and very busy clinics with doctors and nurses working tirelessly to provide care to people living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of workrelated stress, identify stressors and coping strategies among doctors and nurses in the antiretroviral therapy clinics in tertiary health institutions in Lagos State. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among 67 doctors and 30 nurses who provide care to people living with HIV/AIDS. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire, adapting the Maslach Burnout Inventory; AIDS stress scale and Lazarus ways of coping checklist. Data analysis was done using SPSS 20. Results: The mean age of respondents was 40.45 ± 9.87 years. Patients reportedly given care per day ranged from 10 to 250.Majority of the respondents had moderate to high levels of emotional exhaustion (72.2%) and depersonalization (99%).About half of the respondents (46.9%) had moderate to high level of severe stress (burnout) and 98% rated low to moderate on the AIDS stress scale. The main stressors reported were increased patient load (70.1%), and inadequate number of staff (74.2%). The most frequently used coping strategy reported was positive reappraisal (47.4%). Conclusions: The doctors and nurses had moderate to high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, while about half severely stressed (burnout), reportedly due mainly to workplace related stressors than patient-related stressors. Therefore, interventions should be directed at increasing staff strength and providing a more conducive working environment.

[TAG:2]FCS/UGS/15/30[TAG:2]

Obesity: Knowledge and preventive practices of market traders in Shomolu local government area, Lagos

A. O. Oyeniyi, T. O. Odugbemi, E. S. Oridota

Department of Community Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: adeaepo@gmail.com

Introduction: Overweight and obesity are the fifth leading risk for global deaths with at least 2.8 million adults dying each year as a result of being overweight or obese. It is currently estimated that as much as 20-50% of urban populations in Africa are classified as either overweight or obese, and that by 2025 three quarters of the obese population worldwide will be in non-industrialized countries. This study assessed the knowledge and practices regarding prevention of obesity among traders in Shomolu Local Government Area markets, Lagos. Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 165 traders selected by a multistage sampling method. Interview-administered questionnaires were used to collect data. Anthropometric indices were measured to determine the body mass index of respondents. Data was analysed using Epi-Info version 3.5.1 statistical software package. Results: Majority (71.5%) of the respondents had poor knowledge of obesity prevention. Majority (90.9%) exercised frequently. Half (50.9%) had high cognitive dietary restraint (that is, the intention to restrict food intake in order to control body weight) Majority (68.5%) had good dietary patterns. About half (49.7%) of them were overweight/obese. Conclusions: Knowledge of obesity and its prevention was low, while preventive practices (exercise frequency and dietary pattern) were adequate. Primary intervention strategies should go beyond screening for early detection in this group of informal workers by improving knowledge on obesity prevention and encouraging active healthy practices/lifestyles.


  FCS/FM/15/31 Top


Concept of stroke: The use exceeds the definition

C. A. Gbiri, C. W. Van Staden1

Department of Physiotherapy, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria, 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

E-mail: calebgbiri@yahoo.com;

Introduction: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the definition of 'stroke' as defined by the World Health Organisation, show its inadequacy and point out where the use of the concept 'stroke' exceeds the scope of its definition. Summary: The definition of 'stroke' as a rapidly developing clinical sign of focal or global disturbance of cerebral function, with symptoms lasting 24 h or longer or leading to death with no apparent cause other than of vascular origin is over-exclusive and suffers many limitations: 1. 'Disturbance of cerebral function' reduces 'stroke' to only the cerebrum and disturbance in cerebral function. It excludes stroke in other parts of the central nervous system (cerebrum, optic chiasm and retina, and spinal cord), and stroke that do not affect cerebral function (cerebellar stroke, optic chiasm and retina, spinal cord). 2. 'With symptoms lasting 24 h or longer or leading to death' is not sufficient enough to define a stroke as it only reflects an action rather than the process and sequels of stroke. An infarction can occur less than 24 h or even much longer and so also death can occur at any time in the process of a stroke. The sequels of stroke may also last from hours to years. 3. 'Vascular origin' is not a necessary criterion to make up a good description of the pathology (infarction) of stroke. The blood vessel only serves as a medium like any other conditions rather than the end to the means (pathology). By implication, if the definition of stroke is revisited for congruency in the use and the definition, and the definition encompasses stroke in other parts of the central nervous system, there may be a change in the hitherto belief in the epidemiology of stroke and the statistics available for scientific reference. Also, if the current knowledge of predisposing factors (genetic, environmental, regional, racial, nutrition, life-style etc.), the issues of misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis of stroke and the importance of neuroimaging (MRI and CT scan) to diagnosis of 'stroke' are considered, may be paradigm shift in stroke epidemiological researches and reports. Conclusion: The WHO definition of stroke is insufficient and not adequate enough to define the concept and the use of the word 'stroke'. Therefore, there is need for revisiting the definition of stroke to reflect its concept and its use in the clinical management, clinical research and colloquial use. We hereby recommend that stroke should be defined as 'a neurological sequelea resulting from non-traumatic infarction occurring in the central nervous system'. We also recommend that the global epidemiology of stroke as well as the stroke classification ratio should be revisited in the light of current evidences and practice.


  FCS/PGS/15/32 Top


Socioeconomic impact of stroke and informal caregivers' perception of effectiveness of physiotherapy rehabilitation for stroke survivors

C. A. Gbiri, S. O. Isaac1

Department of Physiotherapy, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria, 1Department of Psychiatry, Division of Philosophy and Ethics of Mental Health, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

E-mail: calebgbiri@yahoo.com

Introduction: Stroke has socio-economic consequences on the patients, family and the larger society. This study investigated the socio-economic impact of stroke on the informal caregivers. It also assessed the informal caregivers' perception of the effectiveness of physiotherapy for stroke survivors. Method: This study involved 157 (one per patient) informal caregivers of stroke survivors were receiving care in all (10) public health institutions with physiotherapy services in Lagos Nigeria. Information on socio-demographic, socio-economic details of the informal caregivers was explored through interview using structured key informal guide (KIG). Data on socio-economic impact of stroke on the informal caregivers and their perceptions of the effectiveness of physiotherapy was collected through self-administered questionnaire. Data summarized with descriptive statistics and measures of central tendency. Result: The mean of the participants ranged between 17 and 74 years with a mean age of 39.2 ± 12.8 years. Most (70.1%) of the participants were either children or spouses with caregiving significantly affecting their social life. Majority (92.2%) of the stroke survivors had more than one caregiver thereby increasing the indirect cost of the stroke. The direct cost of stroke on the informal caregivers was between US$600 and US$20,000 per month with loss of between 4-8 productive hours and indirect cost of between US$10 to US$100 per day. Majority (92.8%) opined that the physiotherapy rehabilitation is adequate and important for recovery after stroke. Conclusion: The results of this revealed the high secondary impact of stroke on the family and other significant informal caregivers. Stroke negatively affected the informal caregivers' productivity, finance and social lives.


  FCS/RD/15/33 Top


Does the anaesthetic technique influence the epinephrine and norepinephrine concentration during gynaecological surgery?

A. O. Durodola, O. O. Adekola1, I. Desalu1, J. O. Olatosi1, O. T. Kushimo1, G. O. Ajayi1

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, 1Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, College of Medicine, University of Lagos and Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: duroade@yahoo.com

Background: The epinephrine and nor-epinephrine concentrations increase by up to ten-fold immediately after surgical injury depending on the severity of injury. However, the plasma levels of epinephrine and nor-epinephrine do not necessarily increase concurrently. The plasma epinephrine level increase for about 48 h, while the nor-epinephrine levels remain elevated for about 8-10 days after injury. The anaesthetic technique has been shown to modulate catecholamine secretion. Methods: This study compared the effects of combined spinal epidural anaesthesia (CSEA, n = 20) and balanced general anaesthesia relaxant technique (GAR, n = 20) on epinephrine and nor-epinephrine concentrations during major gynaecological surgery. Venous blood samples were withdrawn at pre-induction, 1, 3 and 4 h after surgical incision for epinephrine and nor-epinephrine analysis using enzyme linked immunosorbant assay technique. Results: The mean pre-induction epinephrine and nor-epinephrine concentrations were similar in both groups, P > 0.05. Similarly, there was no significant difference in mean epinephrine concentrations during the 4 h study period, P > 0.05. However, there was significant difference in mean nor-epinephrine concentrations at 1 h, CSEA (230.11 ± 42.85) versus GAR (51.25 ± 29.15) pg/ml, P = 0.015, and 3 h after incision, CSEA (116.22 ± 39.91) versus GAR (27.00 ± 19.89) pg/ml, P = 0.045.The mean HR and mean MAP were significantly lower in the CSEA group during the study period. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that combined spinal epidural anaesthesia resulted in an initial increase in mean nor-epinephrine concentration one hour after surgical incision followed by gradual decrease towards pre-induction values during the study. While general anaesthesia resulted in increase in nor-epinephrine concentration.


  FCS/RD/15/34 Top


The plasma butyrylcholinesterase phenotype in a Nigerian population

G. K. Asiyanbi1, O. O. Adekola1,2, A. A. Ani3, N. O. Akanmu1,2, A. A. Adesida1,2, A. A. Adetunji1, N. K. Irurhe4, I. D. Menkiti1, I. Desalu1,2, O. T. Kushimo1,2

1Departments of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, 2College of Medicine, University of Lagos, 3Central Research Laboratory, 4Department of Radiation Biology, Radiotherapy, Radiodiagnosis and Radiography, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: drgko2002@yahoo.com

Introduction: Suxamethonium which is still used for rapid sequence induction in Nigeria is metabolized by butyrylcholinesterase along with other choline esters. Mutations in the butyrylcholinesterase gene lead to prolong suxamethonium apnoea. Materials and Methods: The biological variations in butyrylcholinesterase activities in plasma were determined from a convenient sample of 223 blood donors. The triceps and subscapular skin folds of all subjects was measured using a Lange Skinfold Caliper; Cambridge Scientific Industries Inc. Cambridge, MD, USA). Blood specimens (10 mls) was obtained for the analysis of cholinesterase level and phenotype, liver function test (Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase, Alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, albumin and total protein), and creatinine. The reference interval for butyrylcholinesterase activity in healthy Nigerians is 3666-11174U/L. The butyrylcholinesterase phenotype was determined, while the dibucaine number was assayed with dibucaine (10-4 mmol/L) as an inhibitor. Results: A total of 223 blood donors were studied. The demographic and chemical parameters between different cholinesterase phenotype was comparable. A detailed distribution of the BChE level and Phenotype is presented. Conclusion: The occurrence of abnormal cholinesterase phenotype is low in the blood donor sample of a Nigerian population.


  FCS/UGS/15/35 Top


Prevalence and pattern of musculoskeletal injuries among amateur roller skaters in Lagos State, Nigeria

D. O. Odebiyi, O. B. A. Owoeye, A. A. Lanre-Thomas

Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

Introduction: Skating is a dynamic non-contact sport characterised by balanced, coordination, edge control, power, agility and turning ability. The increase in popularity and speed and led to a concomitant increase in in-line skating injuries. Knowledge of the pattern of musculoskeletal (MSD) injuries may be beneficial in prevention and treatment. Physiotherapy plays a key role in the prevention and treatment of MSD injuries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and pattern of MSD injuries among amateur roller-skaters in Lagos, Nigeria. Material and Methods: A total of 510 amateur roller-skaters participated in this cross-sectional survey. They were recruited from three sports centres in Lagos (Rowe-Park, National Stadium Surulere and Teslim Balogun stadium). Participants were required to complete a selfadministered open-ended questionnaire, which collected information biodata, history of roller skating, prevalence, pattern, preventive and predisposing factors to injuries. Data were summarized with descriptive statistics of frequency and percentages. Results: Most of the respondents were males 435 (87%), used led movement as breaking system 308 (61.6%), instead of the break system of the tyre. 350 (70%) respondents sustained injury while roller skating, at least once, in the last 12-months. The knee 138 (39.4%) was the most injured part of the body, followed by wrist/hands 116 (33.1%); knee pad was the most 188 (59.1%) frequently used protective device. More than half 259 (51.8%) of the respondents consulted their coaches before consulting any medical practitioner. Conclusion: Roller skating is more common among the males; MSD injury has a common occurrence among the respondents. The knees were the most common injured body part; followed by wrist/hands and hips/thigh.


  FCS/RD/15/36 Top


Knowledge, prevention and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among brothel based female sex workers in mainland local government area Lagos

U. A. Igwilo, A. O. Sekoni, A. A. Roberts, M. R. Balogun, K. A. Odeyemi, A. T. Onajole

Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: uzoamakaigwilo@gmail.com

Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major global cause of acute illness, infertility, long-term disability and death with serious medical and psychological consequences in millions of individuals. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections among brothel based female sex workers in mainland local government area Lagos. Materials and Methods: It was a descriptive cross sectional study venue based data collection method was used to collect information from 156 brothel based female sex workers. The tool used was interviewer administered questionnaire. Data obtained was analyzed using SPSS software version 19. Results: The study revealed that majority of the respondents was within the age group 2130years with a mean of 27 ± 5.85.9. Only 8.3% had good knowledge, 55.1% had fair knowledge and 36.5% had poor knowledge of transmission, symptoms and treatment of STI. All the respondents reported male condom usage as an STI preventive practice. Misconception about STI prevention was prophylactic use of antibiotics (68.2%), others were washing vagina with herbs, alcohol consumption and praying to God (4.4%). The main STI symptom reported in the past 12 months was genital itch (21.2%) and pain during urination (12.2%). Treatment centre attended by respondents for the last episodes of STI was mainly chemist (19.9%) and private health facilities (19.2%) with the major influencing factor for treatment choices being search for good treatment. Conclusion: The respondents in this study had high prevalence of reported symptoms of STI and exhibited poor knowledge.


  FCS/PGS/15/37 Top


HIV knowledge and testing among non-injecting drug users in Itire-Ikate local council development area, Surulere, Lagos

I. M. Oladayiye, A. O. Sekoni, O. A. Abiola

Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: aosekoni@cmul.edu.ng

Background: HIV counselling and testing (HCT) is an important component of comprehensive HIV prevention program. Drug users are a high risk group in HIV transmission because they possess high prevalence of the disease. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross sectional survey was designed to assess the knowledge of and testing for HIV among male non-injecting drug users (NIDU) in Itire-Ikate Local Council Development Area Surulere, Lagos. Snowball sampling technique was used to recruit adult NIDU with calculated sample size of 311. Semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaires were employed in data collection with chi-square used for significant test. Result: The mean age was 28 years; the respondents were mostly single and unemployed. The drug mainly used was cannabis, 91.6% used both alcohol and drugs. Among this group, 56.3% used the two daily. All the respondents had heard of HIV and 66.6% about HCT. The main source of information was TV/Radio. Half had good knowledge of transmission and prevention of HIV while 66.6% knew that HIV diagnosis is through a blood test. About a third (35.4%) reported to have participated in HCT in the past. Among them 97.3% admitted to have collected their HIV test results. Increasing age and increasing level of education was associated with HIV testing. Married and employed respondents were more likely to have been tested. Conclusion: The study reveals poor knowledge and low participation in HIV testing among non-injecting drug users in Itire-Ikate LGA of Surulere.


  FCS/RD/15/38 Top


Knowledge, attitude and factors associated with second hand smoke exposure among non-smoking pregnant women attending the ante-natal clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital

G. E. Oyekan, O. O. Odukoya, U. U. Igwilo, A. O. Ayo-Yusuf

Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

Introduction: The health risks associated with second hand smoke exposure (SHS) are well documented. During pregnancy, there are risks both to the mother and the unborn child. This study aimed to assess the knowledge of and attitudes towards SHS and to assess the exposure and factors associated with second hand smoke exposure among pregnant women attending a tertiary teaching hospital in Lagos Nigeria. Methodology: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among 422 pregnant women attending the ante-natal clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, selected using a systematic random sampling method. Data was collected using pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaires and was analyzed using Epi info 3.5.1. Results: The key findings from this study revealed that significant proportions (28.4%) of the pregnant women were exposed to second hand tobacco smoke while pregnant. In addition having family members and co-workers who smoke was significantly associated with exposure. 9.1% of the respondents had smoking restrictions within their homes. This was associated with increased exposure to SHS in this study (P > 0.001). The overwhelming majority of the respondents knew that cigarette smoking was harmful to the woman as well as to her unborn baby. Despite the high level of knowledge, less than 30% of the pregnant women were willing to take preventive measures to reduce their exposure. The second most frequently reported source of exposure to second hand smoke was from being in public. However, participants reported much less assertive actions against SHS exposure in public compared to their husbands. This may reflect an environmental difference in that people have less control over their public environment than their home environment, but also a cultural difference in that individual attitudes matter less than social norms. Conclusion: A considerable proportion of these pregnant women are exposed to Second hand smoke. Many of them had poor specific knowledge and only few of them actually took action to avoid second hand smoke exposure in pregnancy. Efforts to protect these women and their unborn babies from the dangers of SHS should be given priority by families, communities, state and national government. Finally, the passage, implementation and enforcement of the long overdue Nigeria tobacco control bill should be given priority among policy makers.


  FCS/PGS/15/39 Top


Evaluation of the roles of HIV co-infection and socio-demographic factors as determinants of quality of life among Nigerians with tuberculosis

P. J. Olagunju, O. O. Odukoya, A. T. Olagunju1, M. R. Balogun

Department of Community Health and Primary Care and 1Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.E-mail: adepeter06@yahoo.com

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health problem, and particularly in resource-restricted settings with disproportionately high burden. This study is aimed at assessing QoL, and the roles of HIV co-infection along with socio-demographic factors on QoL among subjects with TB. Methodology: This is a multi-center cross-sectional study among 440 participants recruited by multi-stage sampling technique across 40 Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) centres. Interviews were done using designed questionnaire to collect information on sociodemographic and clinical details of respondents. Subsequently, WHOQOL-BREF was used to evaluate QoL. Results: Most (61.1%) of the participants was aged between 21 and 40 years, 61.6% were married and 74.5% had a paid job. Majority of the subjects reported fair QoL across all domains. Employment status and monthly income were significantly associated with participants overall QoL and their satisfaction with health (P < 0.05). Also, age, gender, marital status, ethnicity and educational status were significantly associated with the social domain of QoL. The HIV co infection was found to be significantly associated with the physical aspect of their QoL (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Optimal treatment of HIV co-infection and incorporation of psychosocial medicine into TB management are indicated for improved QoL. Similarly, routine assessment of QoL is desirable.


  FCS/UGS/15/40 Top


Knowledge, attitude and prevalence of hypertension among adults in Shomolu local government area

O. B. Windapo, K. A. Odeyemi

Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: bolawindapo@gmail.com

Introduction: Hypertension is a Non-Communicable Disease of public health importance and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and prevalence of hypertension among adults in Shomolu LGA, Lagos State. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study.253 respondents were recruited using multi-stage sampling technique. Data was collected using interviewer administered questionnaires and blood pressure measurements were taken. The results were analyzed using Epi info software version 7. Results: The mean age of respondents was 40.8 ± 15.8 years. There were more male (53.36%) than female (46.64%). Majority (94.86%) of the respondents had heard of hypertension and the most common source of information was from relatives or friends. Only 21.25% of the respondents had good knowledge of hypertension. Majority (93.75%) of the respondents had positive attitude towards hypertension.15.81% of the respondents were known hypertensives and only 65% of them were taking antihypertensive medication. The prevalence of systolic hypertension was 23.32% and the prevalence of diastolic hypertension was 30.04%. ConclusionandRecommendation: Many of respondents had poor knowledge of hypertension and the prevalence of hypertension was high. Health education needs to be provided to empower them to make appropriate lifestyle choices to reduce the burden of hypertension.


  FCS/PGS/15/41 Top


Voluntary blood donation practices and the willingness to donate among the residents of Badagry local government area, Lagos State: A mixed method approach

L. A. Nkemjika, O. O. Odukoya

Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

Introduction: A World Health Organisation (WHO) strategy for ensuring availability of safe blood is for countries to obtain all blood supplies from voluntary donors by 2020.Therefore, a study of this nature may prove to be useful in the implementation of blood donation programme. Methodology: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study employing quantitative and qualitative techniques. Interviewer-administered, semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect quantitative data. Qualitative research was conducted through two focus group discussions. Ethical approval was obtained from the Health Research Ethics Committee of Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Quantitative and qualitative data analysis was carried out using the Epi info software and manually respectively. Results: Most respondents were male (55.1%), married (60.6%), Yoruba (71.4%), and had at least a secondary education (81.0%). The mean age was 36.7 ± 11.1 years. All the respondents have heard of blood donation mainly from health workers (46.7%). The prevalence of adequate knowledge, positive attitude and practice of voluntary blood donation are 61.3%, 69.1% and 2.3% respectively. There was a statistically significant association between knowledge of blood donation and gender (P ≤ 0.005), knowledge of blood donation and level of education (P ≤ 0.030), attitude towards blood donation and level of education (P ≤ 0.0001) and practice of blood donation and gender (P ≤ 0.0001) and between willingness to donate blood voluntarily and gender (P ≤ 0.015) respectively. Reasons for blood donations were mainly the need to help a relative (72.8%) and financial incentives (16.8%). Demotivations were due to fears, misconceptions and lack of opportunity. ConclusionsandRecommendations: The respondents have adequate knowledge and positive attitude towards blood donation but this has not been translated into practice. The State Government should collaborate with rural communities to organize blood donation awareness campaigns, training programmes for the health workers and also literacy programmes to reduce the level of ignorance among the rural dwellers.


  FCS/UGS/15/42 Top


Appropriate infant feeding: A survey of mothers' practices in Magboro, Ogun State

G. A. Agbeboaye, A. A. Roberts, F. A. Olatona

Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: Gabby4000@yahoo.com

Introduction: The practice of breastfeeding and the transition from exclusive breastfeeding to family foods is a very vulnerable period in every child's life. Poor breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices have been widely documented in the developing countries. Only about 39% of infants in the developing countries, 25% in Africa are exclusively breastfed for the first six months. The study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude and infant feeding practices among mothers in Magboro, Ogun state. Method: This was a descriptive cross sectional study among one hundred and seventy four mothers of under-five children selected by multistage sampling in Magboro, Ogun State. The data collected was analyzed electronically using Epi-Info software. Results: Correct knowledge of breastfeeding and complementary feeding was reported by 73.6% and 76.4% of mothers respectively, with 73% of them knowing the correct time to institute complementary feeding. Almost half the mothers surveyed (48.2%) reported that breastfeeding was not sufficient for the baby, and 11.5% knew that breastfeeding can transmit disease. The majority (98.3%) initiated breastfeeding within 30 min of birth and used the colostrum (96.0%). There were positive statistically significant associations between the age of mothers and their average reported monthly household income, and whether they breastfed exclusively for 6 months. Conclusion: This study confirms that there are knowledge gaps concerning exclusive breastfeeding and appropriate complementary feeding. The authors recommend that more community-based educational support is introduced. Further research on appropriate channels of health education is needed.


  FCS/RD/15/43 Top


Early outcome of brain tumour surgery using Karnofsky score and Glasgow outcome score

E. O. Andero1, O. B. Bankole1,2, O. A. Ojo1

1Department of Surgery, Neurosurgery Unit, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, 2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: oluwatimilehinandero@gmail.com

Introduction: Brain tumours are some of the more common and dreaded diagnosis presenting to the neurosurgeon. Very little has been reported in our environment on the treatment outcomes of these patients. Hence there is a general perception of this being a uniformly fatal diagnosis in our environment. The objective of this study is to review our operative experience in managing brain tumour patients and the early outcome. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients were seen over a year period from June 2011 to May 2012. Forty case notes out of these were retrieved (66.7%). Data was obtained from case notes, cranial computerized topography/magnetic resonance imaging, ward and operating room records. All patients had at least computerized tomography evidence of brain tumour. Result: Fifty six patients out of sixty patients studied were operated upon. All had either cranial computerized topography or magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of brain tumour. Complete records were available for forty patients. Twenty two were female, Eighteen were male, two died within forty eight hours of surgery while another two died of surgery related complications. Ninety percent were discharged with improved performance based on the Karnofsky scale and Glasgow outcome scale. Conclusion: Early surgical outcome for patients with brain tumour is reasonably good in our environment despite significant delay in presentation and low Karnofsky score before surgery.


  FCS/UGS/15/44 Top


Knowledge and attitudes towards the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS amongst residents in Ajara-Vetho, Badagry local government area

O. D. Akinde, A. A. Roberts, A. O. Sekoni

Department of Community Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: funmiakinde@gmail.com

Introduction: Mother to child transmission has been said to be responsible for 90% of paediatric cases of HIV. Without interventions, the risk of transmission ranges from 15 to 45% which can be reduced to below 5% with effective interventions. The study assessed knowledge and attitude towards PMTCT amongst community residents in Ajara Vetho, Badagry LGA. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey carried out amongst 265 residents in AjaraVetho, Badagry LGA using a structured questionnaire. Results: The common routes of MTCT of HIV identified were during pregnancy (53.4%), vaginal delivery (52.5%) and breastfeeding (72.5%). The methods of PMTCT known to the respondents were giving antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy (68.4%), giving antiretroviral drugs to the newborn (57.4%), not breastfeeding the newborn (59.9%) and caesarean section (38.3%). Overall 38.6%, 56.6% and 5.68% of respondents had good, fair and poor knowledge of HIV/PMTCT respectively. Stigma and fear of disclosure were agreed to be reasons why some women opt to breastfeed despite their HIV status by 49.1% and 55.1% of the respondents respectively. While 79.2% of respondents agreed that HIV positive women should take drugs to reduce the risk of MTCT, 40.8% of respondents agreed that HIV positive women should have their delivery through caesarean section. Majority of the respondents, 43% disagreed that they would advise a HIV positive woman to breastfeed her baby if she is on medication. Most of the respondents, 86.6% were willing to take a HIV test. Age of respondents, income and level of education were factors affecting the knowledge of HIV and MTCT positively (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Though most of the respondents were aware of MTCT of HIV, knowledge regarding its mode of transmission, risk factors and prevention was inadequate. Dissemination of scientifically sound and culturally acceptable information on PMTCT services and infant feeding is therefore of utmost importance.


  FCS/RD/15/45 Top


The spectrum of movement disorders at the premier Lagos movement disorders clinic: Experience from the first 36 months

N. U. Okubadejo1,2, O. O. Ojo1,2, O. Odeniyi3, O. Agabi1, O. Omojowolo1

1Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, 2Department of Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, 3Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: njide_okubadejo@yahoo.com

Background: The management of movement disorders in dedicated clinics by neurologists and allied health professionals with special training and interest in the subspecialty facilitates improved quality of care. The premier Movement Disorders Clinic was established at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria in January 2011, as the first subspecialty Movement Disorders Clinic in West Africa, to provide specialized care and a platform for training in Movement Disorders (MD). The study objectives are to describe the spectrum of movement disorders cases presenting to the premier Lagos Movement Disorders Clinic in the first 36 months and highlight the challenges and opportunities experienced in running the clinic. Methodology: The Lagos MD Clinic was established in January 2011 at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital Out Patients Department. At inception, a clinic database was instituted to document baseline demographics and diagnosis. Standardized diagnostic clinical criteria are applied with supportive laboratory evidence where relevant/feasible. Results: In the initial 36 months of the clinic, a total of 334 MDs were seen (55.1%) hypokinetic and 44.9 hyperkinetic). The most frequent types were parkinsonism (181; 54.2%), dystonias (65; 19.5%), and other non-parkinsonian, non-dystonic, non-cerebellar tremors (predominantly essential tremor– 57; 17.1%). Other MDs were: Cerebellar ataxia (10; 3.0%), choreoathetosis (6; 1.8%), myoclonus (4; 1.2%), psychogenic movement disorders (4-1.2%), other gait disorders (3; 0.9%), hemifacial spasms (3-0.9%), and paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (1-0.3%). Challenges encountered include limited access to drugs, supportive diagnostic facilities, multidisciplinary expertise (MD specialist nurses, MD specialist physical therapists) and advanced treatment modalities (e.g., deep brain stimulation). Conclusions: The Lagos MD Clinic has improved the diagnostic evaluation and access to specialist care of people with MD in our population. The clinic has provided an opportunity for training undergraduates and residents, hence potentially improving on the likelihood of early diagnosis, referral and improved outcomes over time. The challenges are surmountable through advocacy, enhanced training, human capacity development, infrastructural and logistic (including health funding) improvements.


  FCS/RD/15/46 Top


Obesity amongst adult Nigerians residing in Lagos: Prevalence and association with blood pressure, blood sugar and proteinuria

B. T. Bello, R. W. Braimoh, C. O. Amira, C. C. Nwizu1

Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, 1Department of Medicine, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: taslimbello@gmail.com; bbello@unilag.edu.ng

Introduction: Obesity is a major source of concern to the healthcare community worldwide for two main reasons; its association with increased cardiovascular morbidity and the exponential increase in its prevalence. In Nigeria, the prevalence of obesity has been estimated to range between 8.1% and 22.2%. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity and assess its relationship blood pressure, blood sugar and proteinuria. Methods: This was a community based, cross-sectional study of adults aged 18 years and older in three local government areas in Lagos. A total of 526 individuals were recruited for the study. Obesity was assessed using the body mass index (BMI). Blood pressure measured using mercury sphygmomanometers; casual blood sugar were assessed using glucometers (Accu-check Active®) and proteinuria was determined using dipstick urinalysis (combo 10®). Data obtained was analysed using Epi Info statistical software package version 7.0 and presented as mean and percentages. Obesity was defined as a BMI ≥ 30Kg/m2, hypertension as a systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, diabetes as a casual blood sugar ≥ 200 mg/dL and proteinuria as ≥ 100 mg/dl (> 2+) proteinuria on urinalysis. Results: The mean age of the study population was 39.2 + 15.1 years (range 18-83 years) with 51.9% being females. Overall, 116 (22.1%) were obese. The frequency of obesity was significantly higher in females (28.9% vs 14.6%; P < 0.01), and increased with age. There was a slight but significant positive correlation between BMI and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (r = 0.10; P < 0.01 and r = 0.01; P < 0.01 respectively), as well as blood sugar (r = 0.06; P < 0.01). Compared to non-obese individuals, obese individuals in the study were 4-times more likely to be above 40years of age and 2-times more likely to be female. They also had 8-fold odds of having diabetes and 4-fold odds of having proteinuria. Conclusion: Obesity is common among adult Nigerians residing in Lagos. It prevalence is higher in females and increases with age. It is associated with an increased risk of having diabetes and proteinuria.


  FCS/FM/15/47 Top


Awareness of hypertension guidelines and the diagnosis and evaluation of hypertension by Primary Care Physicians in Nigeria

O. K. Ale, R. W. Braimoh, S. Olayemi, A. Akingbemila

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: gokeale@yahoo.com

Introduction: The availability of hypertension (HTN) guidelines seems not to have impacted significantly on HTN burden in Nigeria. Objective: To assess the level of HTN guidelines awareness among primary care physicians (PCPs) and its relationship to HTN diagnosis and work up. Methods: Data was collected using anonymous self-administered questionnaire with 19 questions on hypertension diagnosis and work. PCPs were categorised into guideline aware (GA) or guideline unaware (GU) according to their response to the question: Are you aware of any HTN guidelines? Results: The 403 participating physicians had mean age and experience of 40 ± 11.34 and 14 ± 11.10 years respectively. The GA physicians accounted for 46.7% (n = 188) of the cohort and were younger than the GU PCPs (38.5 ± 9.6 vs. 41.4 ± 12.6 years, P < 0.05). The 2 subgroups were similar in gender, experience and patient load (P < 0.05). The performance of the 2 subgroups were similar in 9 questions (P < 0.05). The GA PCPs had better performance in 8 questions (P < 0.05), while the GU PCPs performed better in 2 questions (P < 0.05). PCPs in government and private practices had similar performance in 13 questions (P < 0.05), while these 2 subgroups performed better than the other in 3 questions each (P < 0.05). Conclusions: There is a wide gap between guideline recommendations and HTN care in Nigeria that is further widened by guideline unawareness. Popularising HTN guideline among PCPs may significantly improve HTN care and reduce its burden.


  FCS/FM/15/48 Top


Changes in plasma osmolality and anion gap: Potential predictors of impending mortality during maintenance haemodialysis

R. W. Braimoh

Department of Medicine, Nephrology Unit, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: rotelbraimoh@yahoo.com

Objective: Plasma Osmolality and Anion Gap were measured during first cycle and maintenance haemodialysis in CRF patients to find out whether changes in these parameters could be used as indicators of mortality in patients on chronic dialysis. Subjects/

Materials/Methods:
50 stable chronic renal failure patients were studied. There were 35 males and 15 females aged between 20 and 70 years. Hemodialysis was carried out on a single-pass dialysis delivery system– Cobe Century 2. Osmolality was measured using Vapour Pressure Osmometer while anion gap was calculated as Na+-(Cl-+ HC03-) or (Na+ + K+)– (Cl- + HC0-). Anion gap was also calculated by Cx5 autoanalyzer (Beckman, U.S.A) by method of Ions Selective Electrode. Data analysis was done using Epi info statistical software. Result: The first cycle pre dialysis and post dialysis osmolality was 298.15 ± 15 mOsm/kg and 276.0 ± 13.5 mOsm/kg (P < 0.05). Pre and post dialysis Anion gap was 15.1 ± 3.3 and 13.6 ± 3.1 (P < 0.05). The maintenance pre and post dialysis Osmolality was 273.35 ± 14.6 mOsm/kg and 270.60 ± 13.0 mOsm/kg (P < 0.05) respectfully. The maintenance pre and post dialysis anion gap was 12.7 and 12.2 respectively (P > 0.05). There was significant difference between pre and post dialysis osmolality and anion gap (P < 0.05) amongst those that died and those that survived till end of the study. However, there was no significant change in both pre and post dialysis osmolality and anion gap between those that died and those that survived during maintenance dialysis (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Although change in osmolality and anion gap has not been found useful in this study to predict impending mortality during maintenance dialysis, future studies will be required to discover its significance.


  FCS/PGS/15/49 Top


Household food security and nutritional status of children aged 1–5 years in mainland local government area, Lagos state

N. A. Emeribe, A. A. Roberts, E. S. Oridota

Department of Community Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: nanagoso@gmail.com

Introduction: Household food security and malnutrition are common problems that face the Nigerian child. However, inadequate data exists on household food security and nutritional status of the under five children. This study set out to determine the levels of household food security and its correlates; as well as the nutritional status of children between 1-5years in Mainland Local Government LGA, Lagos State. Methodology: A total of 320 households with 390 children aged 1-5years therein were analyzed. Study area was Mainland Local Government LGA, Lagos State. A descriptive cross sectional study was used and data was collected in October 2014. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used, it contained socio demographic and socio economic characteristics of the respondents, child feeding practices, food frequency table, food insecurity questions from the HFIAS and anthropometric measurements of the children. Results: only 2.8% of households were food secure. Socio economic factors such as level of education, occupation and household income were found to positively affect household food security. Socio demographic factors such as age, gender, marital status, and household size did not have a statistical significant effect on household food security. The prevalence rates of stunting, underweight and wasting were 45.4%, 8.7% and 1.7% respectively. Most of the children (75.45%) had MUAC values >13.5 cm with 26.45% of them being malnourished. Most of the households had adequate intake of carbohydrates and protein 86.3% and 90.3% respectively. Conclusion: Very few households were food secure in Mainland Local Government LGA, Lagos State, low socio economic variables shown to worsen the level of food insecurity. High rate of stunting was observed compared to wasting and underweight. An integrated approach will be required to improve the socio economic status of the households in Mainland LGA, with maternal education and improved household income at the fore.


  FCS/PGS/15/50 Top


Household food security and dietary intake of pregnant women in Ikorodu local government area of Lagos State

G. G. Akaogu, A. A. Roberts

Department of Community Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: graceumems@yahoo.com

Background: Pregnancy outcomes are directly and indirectly affected by the quantity and quality of nutrients available. Maternal mortality is still one of Nigeria's leading reproductive health challenges and maternal nutrition is a strategy being employed to improve the situation. Food insecurity is linked to availability, affordability and utilization patterns in households. This study aims to determine the household food security, dietary intake and associated factors of pregnant women. Methodology: This was a cross sectional descriptive study among 270 pregnant women in Ikorodu LGA. Data were collected on the socio demographic characteristics, food frequency patterns and assessment of household food security using the Household Food Insecurity Assessment Tool (HFIAS).Dietary intake was assessed as adequate or inadequate intake of the major food groups and snacks. Associated factors examined were sociodemographic characteristics, education and income. Analysis was carried out using the Epi-info version 3.5. Significant associations were tested using Chi-square and significance reported at P < 0.05. Results: The proportions of women who had adequate intake of carbohydrates, proteins, and minerals and vitamins were 60.4%, 67.0%, and 76.3% respectively, while the proportion of women who had appropriate snacks intake was 65.9%. The proportion of food secure households was 30.4%, while 20.4%, 41.5%, and 7.8% of the households were mildly food insecure, moderately food insecure and severely food insecure respectively. There was no significant relationship between household food security of this pregnant women and their total dietary intake, however, women who were food insecure had inadequate intake of minerals and vitamins and inappropriate snacking habits. Conclusion: Pregnant women in Ikorodu local government area had an adequate intake of the major food groups, but inappropriate snack intake and consumption of sugary drinks. There is a direct relationship between intake and income level and marital status. The high proportion of food insecurity was directly associated with less complex occupations and larger household size. However, there was no statistical significant association between food security and dietary intake amongst these pregnant women.


  FCS/PGS/15/51 Top


Correlates of routine and optional vaccines uptake among mothers and caregivers of children less than 2 years old in Kosofe local government area, Lagos State

S. R. Akunne, A. A. Roberts1, V. A. Inem1

Department of Paediatrics, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, 1Department of Community Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: somtoakunne@yahoo.com

Introduction: Vaccine preventable diseases are a major cause of death in children. Immunization has had a significant effect on reducing mortality and morbidity from childhood diseases. Some vaccines, usually those on the national immunization program are given routinely at no cost while other vaccines that are newly introduced are optional and so are given at a cost to families. The study was carried out to determine the various factors that influence the uptake of the routine and optional vaccines among mothers/caregivers of children less than 2 years in Kosofe Local Government Area of Lagos State. Methodology: This was a community based descriptive cross-sectional study. Multi-stage sampling was used to select 319 mothers/caregivers whose children are less than 2 years old. Data collection was done using pre-tested, interviewer administered questionnaires. Data was processed and analyzed using Epi Info software version 3.5. Results were presented as frequencies and percentages, association between exposure and outcome variables were tested using Chi square at a level of significance of P < 0.05. Results: The knowledge and uptake of the optional vaccines were significantly lower than they were for the routine vaccines Most of the respondents (86.8% and 60.2%) had good knowledge of routine vaccines and optional vaccines. For the 313children, 98.1%that have received at least one routine vaccine and 56 (17.6%) children that have received an optional vaccine, the major reason for uptake was that the vaccines prevent diseases (82.7% and 83.9% respectively) Factors significantly associated with uptake of routine vaccines were place of child's delivery, education of mother/caregiver, knowledge of the vaccines and vaccine preventable diseases while for the optional vaccines, the significantly associated factors were socio-economic characteristics (education, occupation, and average monthly income) and knowledge of optional vaccines. Conclusion: Efforts should be made to increase the knowledge of the vaccines and ensure not just availability and accessibility of the optional vaccines, but also to make them affordable to the target population.


  FCS/PGS/15/52 Top


Improving societal integration and productivity after a stroke: A randomized control study

C. A. Gbiri1,2, O. A. Olawale1, B. L. Ileyemi1

1Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria, 2Department of Psychiatry, Division of Philosophy and Ethics of Mental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

E-mail: tunadagreat@yahoo.com

Introduction: Gait and cardiopulmonary incompetency are major obstacles to effective societal integration and productivity after a stroke. This has also increased degrees of disability, dependency and lack of productivity in stroke survivors. The study was designed to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of 3 aerobic exercises in improving gait and cardiorespiratory function and societal integration after stroke. Methods: This study involved 43 stroke survivors discharged from hospital in-patient care at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. The study obtained ethics approval and informed consent. Participants were randomized into three (bicycle ergometry, treadmill or overground walking exercise) groups. Participants had complete physical and laboratory examinations, radiograph and electrocardiogram to certify them clinically fit for the procedure. Each participant had routine physiotherapy in addition to participating in exercise training in the group for 1½ hours, twice weekly for 8 weeks. Baseline and post-training measurements of resting heart rate (RHR), maximal HR (MHR), 10-meter walk time (10MWT), 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), exercise blood pressure at submaximal workload (BPMWL), and duration of exercise were recorded while peak oxygen consumption (Ṿ O2 peak) was calculated. Resting HR and resting BPs were determined after sitting for 20 min at rest using an automated system at 20 min before, during and 20 min after aerobic exercises. The exercise protocol was based on guidelines recommended by American College of Sports Medicine. During the first 4 weeks, the training intensity was gradually increased from a workload representing 30% to 50% of maximal heart rate to the highest level attainable by the subject. The highest training intensity was maintained for the final 4 weeks of training. Their societal integration was quantified through the number of hours of participation in community activities and return to work. Data was analyzed with paired t-tests and analysis of variance (P ≤ 0.05). Results: The 10MWT values significantly decreased from 20.75 ± 7.57seconds to 13.87 ± 3.27seconds in the treadmill group (P = 0.02), from 24.06 ± 10.75seconds to 16.67 ± 4.70seconds in the over-ground walking group (P < 0.01) and non-significantly (P < 0.06) from 27.05 ± 11.92seconds to 19.51 ± 5.71seconds in the bicycle ergometer group. The 6MWD significantly increased from 181.40 ± 43.07 meters to 229.15 ± 37.52 meters in the bicycle ergometry group (P = 0.03), from 184.87 ± 47.91 meters to 246.62 ± 38.89 meters in the treadmill group (P < 0.001) and from 180.26 ± 48.36 meters to 231.73 ± 32.95 meters in the over-ground walking group (P < 0.001). There was no significant different among the groups in the RHR, BPMWL, MHR, and Ṿ O2 peak. The over-ground group followed by the treadmill and bicycle ergometer group performed non-significantly better in the walking speed and endurance and in societal integration. Conclusion: Different aerobic exercise trainings are effective in improving gait and cardiorespiratory functions and promote societal integration after stroke. However, over-ground walking followed by treadmill is clinically better than the bicycle ergometer in improving functional performances and societal integration.


  FCS/FM/15/53 Top


Intrasound therapy is an effective adjunct in the management of osteoarthritis of the knee: A preliminary clinical study

A. Aiyegbusi, U. A. C. Okafor, A. Adejugbagbe, A. Akinfeleye1, O. Fapojuwo1

Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, 1Department of Physiotherapy, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: aaiyegbusi@unilag.edu.ng

Introduction: Intrasound Therapy (IST) has been found to improve healing in acute injuries in animal models but no clinical study has been conducted on chronic degenerative conditions in human subjects. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of IST and TENS in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Twenty-four patients were randomly assigned into 3 groups: IST, TENS and the Control group. Subjects in Group 1 had IST for 10 min and Close-Chain Exercises, Group 2 subjects had TENS for 15 min and Close-Chain Exercises, while the Control group patients had only Close-Chain Exercises. Treatment was given for eight weeks, twice weekly. Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores, the distance covered in the 6-Minutes' Walk Test, and knee range of motion (ROM) were evaluated before and after the treatment. Data was analyzed using paired t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The clinical outcome measures improved significantly in the three groups posttreatment. Subjects in the three groups had significant differences in the mean change in the outcome variables for the WOMAC score (TENS P = 0.001; IST P = 0.001 & EXERCISE only P = 0.005). The post-hoc analysis between IST and TENS showed no significant differences but there were significant differences between both IST and TENS and the control. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Intrasound Therapy may be a better alternative to TENS as an adjunct therapy in the management of OA knee.


  FCS/FM/15/54 Top


Survival analysis of time to achieve normal blood pressure in hypertensive patients in South-West Nigeria

T. O. Fatoki, O. J. Akinsola1, B. O. Fatoki2

Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, 1Department of Community Health and Primary Health, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, 2Department of Medical, Health Service Commission, Ministry of Health, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: oakinsola@unilag.edu.ng

Introduction: Hypertension is one of the leading health problems in the world with serious and costly complications. Excess mortality attributable to hypertension has, in the past decade, caused more deaths than all wars combined. It is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in many developing countries, Nigeria inclusive. It is important that people are aware and informed about hypertension and other health related issues. Understanding the true state of the survivorship of hypertensive will be of great benefit to patients, physicians, government and other related agencies in checking the scourge of this disease. This study was designed to investigate the survivorship of hypertensive patients and factors affecting the survivorship of hypertensive patients. Methods: Data from the case notes of hypertensive patients receiving treatments in Ajeromi General Hospital, Ajegunle (AGHA) and Ring road State Hospital, Adeoyo (RSHA) from January, 2000 to December, 2012 were used. Survival analysis (SA) techniques were explored to determine the survivorship of hypertensive patients where the attainment of normal blood pressure is the event of interest. Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the factors affecting the survivorship of hypertensive patients. Results: The median survival of hypertensive patient receiving treatment in Ajeromi was 35 months (95% C I: 32-38 months), the 107 months (95% C I: 95-119 months) in Adeoyo, the median survival time of male respondent was 74 months (95% CI: 63-85 months) and in female respondent was found to be 99 months (95% C I: 84-114 months). However, we found that the overall median survival time was 87 months (95% C I: 78-100 months). Conclusion: The study concluded that location, occupation and gender affected the survivorship of hypertensive patients. The time to attainment of normal blood pressure shorter in hypertensive patients in Ajeromi General Hospital, Ajegunle compared patients in Ringroad State Hospital, Adeoyo.


  FCS/FM/15/55/P Top


Resting heart rate reflects heart failure severity measured by amino terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and echocardiography

J. N. A. Ajuluchukwu, O. K. Ale, D. A. Olusegun-Joseph, A. C. Mbakwem

Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Lagos and Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: jajuluchukwu@unilag.edu.ng

Introduction: Heart rate as a clinical parameter has long been important in physiological, haemodynamic and prognostic evaluations. Recently, resting heart rate (RHR) was recognised as a risk marker for adverse events in Heart Failure (HF) and also an important intervention goal. We hypothesised that higher RHR– a reflection of neurohormonal activation of HF, should correlate with measures of HF severity. Aims/Objectives: To seek a relationship of RHR with measures of HF severity such as echocardiographic parameters and brain natriuretic peptides. Methodology: We measured heart rate by electrocardiography in recumbent position in 42 acute heart failure patients and 30 age-and sex-matched healthy controls. HF was diagnosed using the Framingham criteria. All participants underwent a 2D-directed trans-thoracic echocardiography; and plasma NT pro-Brain natriuretic peptide evaluation using point-of-care immunoassay system. Results: HF patients and controls differed significantly in RHR (76.3 ± 8.7 versus 101.0 ± 21.4 beats/minute; P = 0.000); echocardiographic parameters (P < 0.05), and NT pro-BNP levels (P < 0.05). RHR exhibited a modest but highly significant correlation with individual features associated with HF severity [respiratory rate, systolic BP, NT-pro-BNP, left atrial size [LA], left ventricular dimensions, EPSS,FS and EF (r = 0.4-0.54, P = 0.03-0.01)]. Sub-classification of participants' RHR using <99 versus ≥100 beats/minute distinguished patients with higher NT pro BNP (median1226 versus 2086 pg/mL, P < 0.05). Multiple regression further confirmed independent predictors of RHR as SBP, NT-pro-BNP, and LA (T=-2.21-5.39, P = 0.03-0.000). Conclusion: Resting heart rate has correlated with known measures of HF severity. Thus, can serve as a surrogate measure for HF stratification or therapeutic monitoring.


  FCS/FM/15/56/P Top


Clinical and Echocardiographic correlates of amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in hospitalised heart failure

J. N. A. Ajuluchukwu, E. N. Ekure1, A. C. Mbakwem, C. N. Okoromah1, O. O. Oladipo2

Departments of Medicine, 1Paediatrics, and 2Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: jajuluchukwu@unilag.edu.ng

Introduction: Globally, a clear role has emerged for amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT pro-BNP) in the current management of heart failure (HF). There is limited experience in parts of Africa. Thus, our aim to study NT pro-BNP relationships with clinical and echocardiographic features of HF. Methods: Clinical and trans-thoracic echocardiographic evaluations were performed in symptomatic HF patients and age-, and sex-matched healthy subjects (HS). Plasma NT pro-BNP was measured using “Cardiac Reader", a near-patient immunoassay system. Results: In 30 controls (53% males) and 42 CHF patients (59% males), aged 54 years, mean (pg/mL) NT pro BNP of healthy subjects (HS) was significantly lower than that of HF patients (82.6 ± 43.9 versus 1915.6 ± 1083.3 t=9.924 p<0.001). NT pro BNP was related to a clinical score (P = 0.038); respiratory rate (t=3.96), heart rate (t=2.0, and systolic blood pressure (t=-2.24). Diastolic and pulse pressure were comparable. NT pro BNP showed significant negative correlation with both fractional shortening and ejection fraction r=-0.5; p<0.001). Additional analyses identified significant associations with other echocardiographic parameters: Left atrium t=2.25; P = 0.028); EPSS (t=4.03, P = 0. <0.001, and E velocity 2.11, P = 0.039). About 50% of patients had systolic HF and their NT pro BNP levels were comparable to preserved-EF HF (1960.0 ± 991.4 versus 1842.0 ± 1249.2, P = 0.78). Conclusion: NT pro-BNP was markedly elevated in HF, and associated with relevant clinical and echocardiographic parameters. Thus, like elsewhere, NT pro-BNP has clinical potential as a qualitative and quantitative marker of CHF in African patients.


  FCS/FM/15/57/P Top


An evaluation of the knowledge of gestational diabetes mellitus among patients of an urban antenatal clinic in Lagos, Nigeria

S. O. Iwuala, C. C. Makwe1, O. A. Fasanmade

Departments of Medicine and 1Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: sandraerhuanga@yahoo.com

Background: The incidence of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy including GDM is increasing in developing countries. GDM predicts T2DM development in mother and offspring. Pregnancy provides a chance for education and screening for GDM and thus an opportunity for DM prevention in 2 generations. Aim: To determine the knowledge of GDM among pregnant Nigerian women. Methods: A cross sectional study was undertaken among antenatal patients of a tertiary health care facility in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria. A pretested structured interviewer administered questionnaire obtained information about socio-demography, gestational age (GA), obstetric history, and personal history of DM/GDM. The questionnaire included 27 questions on awareness and knowledge of GDM risk factors, diagnosis, prevention, management and outcome of GDM in the mother and offspring. A knowledge score was derived and categorized as poor <50%, fair 50-74% and good >75%. Predictors of good knowledge were explored. Results: 157 pregnant women participated in the study. The mean age, GA, number of previous births was 31.1(4.9) years, 24.1(8.9) weeks and 2.0 (1.0) births respectively. Majority (84.1%) had tertiary educational level. 10 (6.4%) had a current/previous diagnosis of GDM/DM. 50(31.8%) indicated that they had never heard of the term GDM or diabetes mellitus (DMIP) in pregnancy. 98(62.4%), 50(31.8%), 49(31.2%) knew that family history of DM, obesity and fetal macrosomia were risk factors for GDM. 65(41.4%) correctly identified fetal macrosomia and the increased risk for special care of the newborn as a complication. Only 39(24.8%) knew that persons with GDM were more likely to develop DM later on in life. The mean knowledge score was 12.7(6.9). 19(12.1%), 60(38.2%), and 78(49.7%) had good, fair and poor knowledge respectively. There was a significant association between awareness of the term GDM/DMIP and knowledge category (100% vs 76.7% vs 68.2% for good, fair and poor knowledge respectively, p<0.001). Age, GA, no of births, educational level, prior GDM/DM diagnosis were not associated with knowledge category. Conclusion: Almost half of the women had poor knowledge of GDM and one-third had never heard of GDM. There is a need to raise awareness of GDM especially in developing countries and seize the chance of DM prevention in two generations.


  FCS/FM/15/58/P Top


Knowledge and attitude of undergraduate medical students on early childhood caries and infant oral health

O. O. Olatosi, S. O. Iwuala1, R. W. Ojewola2, N. Chukwudifu, F. A. Oredugba, E. O. Sote

Departments of Child Dental Health, 1Medicine and 2Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: bukkyolatosi@yahoo.com

Background and Aim: Oral health is an important part of the general health of children. Collaborative relationships between physicians and dentists can help improve oral and overall health of children. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of undergraduate medical students on early childhood caries (ECC) and infant oral health. Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among undergraduate medical students to assess their knowledge on ECC and infant oral health through a self-administered questionnaire which consisted of four parts. The first part contained questions on sociodemographic characteristics. The second part assessed knowledge of infant oral health which included infant oral health care visits, time of tooth eruption, and oral hygiene measures in children while the third part evaluated the knowledge of the aetiology, prevention and transmission of early childhood caries. The fourth part assessed the students' attitude concerning general infant oral health and ECC. Results: A total of 129 students participated in the study (mean age 24.2 ± 3.0 years). There were 74 males and 55 females. Concerning tooth eruption, most of the students (75.2%) knew that a child's first tooth erupts at about six to seven months of age. Only 32.6% of the respondents agreed that a child's first visit to the dentist should be on or before the age of one year, 70.5% knew that a mother should start cleaning her child's teeth as soon as the first primary tooth erupts. Only 14.7% of them knew that ECC is transmissible from mother to child, about 74.4% agreed that putting babies to sleep with bottle containing infant formula/breast milk can predispose to ECC. Among the students, 23.3% of them associated on demand/prolonged breast feeding with ECC. Majority of the students had good knowledge of general infant oral health (85.3%) but had poor knowledge with regards to the aetiology and prevention of early childhood caries (71.3%). Conclusion: There is a need to increase the knowledge of medical students on infant oral health especially in the aetiology and prevention of early childhood caries. We recommend that undergraduate medical curriculum should emphasise on oral health topics of public health importance like ECC and its prevention.


  FCS/FM/15/59/P Top


Decade of birth and waist circumference influence age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Nigeria

O. O. Fasanmade1,2, S. O. Iwuala1,2, I. A. Odeniyi1,2, O. A Fasanmade2, A. E. Ohwovoriole1,2

1Department of Medicine, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Unit, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, 2Department of Medicine, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Unit, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.

E-mail: ifedayoodeniyi@gmail.com

Background: The prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is increasing globally. This has been attributed to increase in the prevalence of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and westernization of our community. The mean age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been reported to be decreasing and this change may be attributed to an earlier onset of T2DM or earlier detection or a combination of both. There is also a concern that T2DM may be occuring at a greater frequency in adolescents and in younger adults. In Nigeria, there is scant data on the trend of the age at diagnosis of our T2DM patients. AimsandObjectives: To determine relationship between mean age at diagnosis, decade of birth and correlation with anthropometric indices in T2DM subjects in Nigeria. Methodology: This study was a cross sectional study and the data was from the diabetes clinic register of patients attending the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Information such as; date of birth, sex, year of diagnosis, BMI (Body Mass Index), waist circumference were extracted. Data collected was analysed using SPSS version 17. Results: Data of 396 subjects were analysed of these, 243 (61.4%) were females, 153 (38.6%) males. Mean age of the subjects was 59.95 + 12.02 years. Mean age at diagnosis of the subjects was 50.84 + 12.09 years. Minimum age at diagnosis was 17years, maximum age was 82years. Mean age at diagnosis for females was 50.69 + 12.05 years, while that of males was 51 + 12.16 years (P = 0.762). 78 (19.7%) subjects were diagnosed at the age of <40 years. Mean age at diagnosis gradually deceased from 72.33 + 12.08 years in subjects born in the 1920's to 26.20 + 5.26 years in subjects born in the 1980s. There was a weak inverse relationship between age at diagnosis and BMI (r = -0.019, P = 0.709). There was a similar though stronger inverse relationship between age at diagnosis and waist circumference (r = -0.1, P = 0.047). Over half (57.4%) of the subjects were diagnosed between 2001-2010. Conclusion: Age at diagnosis of T2DM is reducing in Nigeria especially in the last 2 decades. These findings may be due to increasing westernization in the last 2 decades, increasing obesity or increased screening of the population, which may be attributed to increased awareness of the disease by both healthcare professionals and patients. Waist circumference seems to strongly predict earlier age at DM diagnosis than the BMI.




 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
FCS/RD/15/01
FCS/FM/15/02
FCS/FM/15/03
FCS/FM/15/04:
FCS/PGS/15/05
FCS/RD/15/06
FCS/RD/15/07
FCS/FM/15/08
FCS/FM/15/09
FCS/FM/15/10
FCS/FM/15/11
FCS/RD/15/12
FCS/FM/15/13
FCS/FM/15/14
FCS/UGS/15/15
FCS/FM/15/16
FCS/FM/15/17
FCS/NFM/15/18
FCS/UGS/15/19
FCS/PGS/15/20
FCS/UGS/15/21
FCS/PGS/15/22
FCS/FM/15/23
FCS/PGS/15/24
FCS/PGS/15/25
FCS/PGS/15/26
FCS/FM/15/27
FCS/UGS/15/28
FCS/PGS/15/29
FCS/FM/15/31
FCS/PGS/15/32
FCS/RD/15/33
FCS/RD/15/34
FCS/UGS/15/35
FCS/RD/15/36
FCS/PGS/15/37
FCS/RD/15/38
FCS/PGS/15/39
FCS/UGS/15/40
FCS/PGS/15/41
FCS/UGS/15/42
FCS/RD/15/43
FCS/UGS/15/44
FCS/RD/15/45
FCS/RD/15/46
FCS/FM/15/47
FCS/FM/15/48
FCS/PGS/15/49
FCS/PGS/15/50
FCS/PGS/15/51
FCS/PGS/15/52
FCS/FM/15/53
FCS/FM/15/54
FCS/FM/15/55/P
FCS/FM/15/56/P
FCS/FM/15/57/P
FCS/FM/15/58/P
FCS/FM/15/59/P

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1656    
    Printed82    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded578    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]